Biology Videos

Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life

Subatomic Particles and Atomic Mass

Electron Shells, Electron Orbitals, and Valence Electrons

Covalent Bonds

Ionic Bonds

Van der Waals Forces

Hydrogen Bonds


Chapter 3:  Water and the Fitness of the Environment

Water and its Properties

Water as a Solvent

Hydrophobic vs Hydrophilic

Acids, Bases and the pH Scale

Chapter 4:  Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life

Carbon and Molecular Diversity


Functional Groups

Chapter 5:  Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

Monomers and Polymers







Protein Structure

Protein Folding and Denaturation

Chapter 6:  A Tour of the Cell

The Nucleus


Endomembrane System




The Cytoskeleton

The Extracellular Matrix

Cell Junctions

Chapter 7:  Membrane Structure and Function

Membrane Structure

Membrane Fluidity

Membrane Carbohydrates

Passive Transport

Active Transport

Membrane Potential

Tonicity and Osmosis

Endocytosis and Exocytosis

Chapter 8:  An Introduction to Metabolism

Forms of Energy

Thermodynamics and Entropy

Free Energy and Equilibrium



Local Conditions and Enzyme Activity

Enzyme Inhibition

Allosteric Enzymes

Chapter 9:  Cellular Respiration

Oxidation and Reduction


Pyruvate Oxidation and the Citric Acid Cycle

Electron Transport Chain

ATP Accounting


Chapter 10:  Photosynthesis

Excitation of Chlorophyll by Light

Parts of a Photosystem

Linear Electron Flow

Cyclic Electron Flow

Calvin Cycle

Chapter 11:  Cell Communication

Local vs Long-Range Signaling



Ligand-gated Ion Channels

Intracellular Receptors

Signal Transduction and Second Messengers

Chapter 12:  The Cell Cycle

Cellular Organization and Bacterial Cell Division

Cell Cycle Controls and Cancer

Phases of Mitosis

Chapter 13:  Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Chromosomes and Sexual Life Cycles

Stages of Meiosis

Mitosis vs Meiosis

Origins of Genetic Variation among Offspring

Chapter 14:  Mendel and the Gene Idea

Mendel's experiment and general terms

Alleles and the Law of segregation

Law of independent assortment

Laws of probability

Degrees of dominance

Other factors influencing inheritance of a single gene /Pleiotropy

Epistasis and polygenic inheritance

Environmental effects on gene expression

Blood Types

Pedigree analysis

Chapter 15:  The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance

Chromosomal Basis of Sex

Inheritance of X-linked genes and X-inactivation

Genetic Recombination and Linkage

Linkage Maps

Abnormal Chromosome Numbers

Alterations of Chromosome Structure

Genomic Imprinting

Inheritance of Organelle Genes

Chapter 16:  The Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Evidence of Genetic Material (DNA)

DNA Structure

DNA Replication Models

DNA Replication

DNA Proofreading and Telomeres

From DNA to Chromosomes

Chapter 17:  From Gene to Protein

Transcription, translation and genetic code

Molecular components of transcription

Stages of transcription

RNA processing

Molecular components of translation

Stages of translation

Post-translational modifications and signaling mechanisms

Mutations and protein structure

Chapter 18:  Regulation of Gene Expression


Positive gene regulation

Eukaryotic gene expression

Regulation of transcription

RNA interference

Cancer due to genetic changes