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Undergraduate Courses

1306 Logic (TCCNS: PHIL 2303) A critical analysis of the principles and methods used to distinguish correct from incorrect reasoning. The student examines uses of language, definitions, and informal fallacies. Included is an introductory study of the logic of the syllogism, the logic of truth functions, the logic of extended propositional proofs, the logic of relations, and the logic of experimental methods used in the sciences. The student is assisted in developing his or her ability to think critically and coherently and to construct well-formulated arguments.

1307 Critical Thinking The development of critical, coherent, and creative thinking, including understanding, analyzing, and evaluating the claims of others, organizing ideas clearly, and constructing sound arguments. Development of sensitivity to argumentation technique and to the language in which arguments are expressed, with particular attention to the persuasive techniques of advertising and other controversial issues in the mass media.

1308 Introduction to Ethics An introductory study of philosophical topics related to moral and political life. Possible topics include morality and modernity, friendship, just war and pacifism, the seven deadly sins, famine and affluence, science and society, and environmental, business, medical, or professional ethics.

1321 Introduction to Philosophy (TCCNS: PHIL 1301) An introductory study of major philosophical topics, themes and thinkers. The course aims to develop the ability to read texts critically and to think clearly about such fundamental issues as God, human knowledge, and the nature of reality.

2301 Existentialism An examination and evaluation of philosophical themes and methods in existentialist writings. Themes such as freedom, anxiety, despair, nothingness, alienation, death, God, the impotence of reason, the conflict between individuality and the dehumanizing tendencies of mass society, and the conflict between authentic self and inauthentic self are considered. Attention is focused upon the work of such thinkers as Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Jaspers, Heidegger, Marcel, Sartre, and Camus.

2305 Philosophy and Religion A critical analysis of the rationality of religious beliefs, principally those in the theistic tradition. Topics may include the existence of God, evil, religious language, religious experience, faith and reason, and individual religious commitments in a pluralistic world.

2308 Philosophical Texts A study of central philosophical texts in their historical context and for their enduring philosophical contributions. Possible texts include Plato's Republic; Aristotle's Nichomachean Ethics; Augustine's Confessions; St. Thomas' Summa; Descartes' Meditations, Kierkegaard's Fear and Trembling; and Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra. May be taken a maximum of two times if different topics, not to exceed six semester hours.

2309 Philosophical Traditions A study of central philosophical tradition in its historical context and for its enduring philosophical contribution. Possible traditions include existentialism, feminism, political liberalism, pragmatics, post-modernism, naturalism, positivism, and scholasticism. May be taken a maximum of two times if different topics, not to exceed six semester hours.

2310 Law, Science, and Society A study of philosophical issues arising at the intersections of law, morality, science, and society. The course will consider such issues as the proper relation between morality and law, civil disobedience, racism, feminism, equal opportunity and justice, abortion, euthanasia, animal rights, punishment, pornography, creationism, and moral aspects of technological development.

2370 Business Ethics An analysis of moral issues that arise within the economic sphere of society and specifically within profit and nonprofit organizations. The nature and justification of moral decision making will be examined. Topics may include moral issues involving the relationships between business and other social organizations, ecology, the social responsibility of entrepreneurs, and personnel and policy decisions.

3301 Moral Philosophy A critical study of problems in moral judgment and evaluation, with analysis of presuppositions and justifications used in moral discourse. Problems such as freedom and determinism, relativism and absolutism, conflicts of duties and ends, grounds of moral obligation, and choices involving personal and social goals are also studied. This course will introduce students to a number of major primary sources in the history of moral philosophy.

3305 British Philosophy and Culture This course is designed for Baylor University's study-abroad program. (Note: see section in this catalog regarding foreign study.) While the specific course content will vary with the instructor, attention will be given to the way issues have been addressed by philosophers in the British Isles such as More, Bacon, Hobbes, Locke, Hume, Mill, Wittgenstein, Russell, and Ryle. The philosophical ideas of literary figures such as Jane Austen, Robert Browning, and William Wordsworth may also be considered. Discussions will be developed in the rich settings of cathedrals, theaters, universities, and museums.

3310 History of Philosophy: Classical Philosophy Historical context in which philosophy developed and how the original issues of philosophy continue to inform historical and contemporary philosophical debate. Emphasizes the reading of primary sources: Homer, Hesiod, the pre-Socratics, the Sophists, Plato, and Aristotle, and the study of Stoicism, Epicureanism, and Skepticism.

3312 History of Philosophy: Modern European Philosophy A study of the major developments in philosophy from the Renaissance through the first half of the nineteenth century. The demise of late Scholasticism, the rise of modern science, the philosophies of the Continental Rationalists and the British Empiricists, the critical philosophy of Kant, and German Idealism are considered. Philosophers studied include Descartes, Leibniz, Spinoza, Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Kant, Hegel, Marx, Schopenhauer, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche.

3320 Philosophical Issues in Feminism A critical study of philosophical issues in feminism including moral issues of equal rights and justice, sex role stereotypes, equal opportunity and reverse discrimination, equality between the sexes, abortion, and philosophers' theories of feminism. Topics may vary from semester to semester.

3322 Philosophy and the Arts (Cross-listed as ART 3390) A survey of the major contemporary sources in aesthetics. Problems discussed are concerned with the aesthetic experience, the interpretation of art (including the definition of art, the nature of metaphor, the relation of art to knowledge, meaning in art), and criticism in literature and other art forms.

3395 Historiography and the Philosophy of History Prerequisite(s): Six semester hours of history or consent of instructor. An introduction to ancient, medieval, and modern historiography and the development of the philosophy of history. Critical consideration will be given to traditional thought about concepts fundamental to history, including the ideas of historical explanation, purpose, cause, and interpretation. Emphasis will be given to methods of historical research and writing.

4310 Philosophy of Science An analysis of philosophical problems about science. Such central concepts as law, causation, induction, hypothesis, theory, verification, and models are studied. Presuppositions and methodologies of different sciences may be examined. The relation of scientific views to moral, social, and metaphysical problems is considered.

4300 History of Medicine (Cross-listed as BIO 4300, HIS 4300, and MH 4300) A Review of the organs and development of medicine and medical science from prehistoric times to the present. Consideration will be given to the impact of major diseases on civilization and the emergence of successful measure of control.

4310 Philosophy of Science An analysis of philosophical problems about science. Such central concepts as law, causation, induction, hypothesis, theory, verification, and models are studied. Presuppositions and methodologies of different sciences may be examined. The relation of scientific views to moral, social, and metaphysical problems is considered.

4311 Epistemology A critical examination of classical and current problems in theories of knowledge. Attention is given to such problems as meaning, truth, the knowing situation, universals, knowledge of the external world and of other minds, and validation of knowledge claims. The contributions of recent movements such as logical empiricism, linguistic analysis, and phenomenology may be studied.

4314 History of Philosophy: Patristic and Medieval The history and development of philosophy from 250 to 1400 A.D. Some of the major philosophers studied include Augustine, Boethius, John Scotus Erigena, Anselm, Abelard, Avicenna, Averroes, Maimonides, Bonaventure, Thomas Aquinas, John Duns Scotus, and William of Ockham. Special emphasis will be placed on the significance of pre-Enlightenment thinkers to the development of the Enlightenment and Modernity.

4318 Philosophy of Law (Cross-listed as AMS 4318) A critical study of historical and contemporary approaches to primary issues in the philosophy of law. Movements studied in the course usually include legal positivism, legal absolutism, legal relativism, legal realism, and natural law. Some legal philosophers whose works generally are discussed include John Austin, Jeremy Bentham, H. L. A. Hart, Hans Kelsen, John Rawls, R. Dworkin, M. R. Cohen, O. W. Holmes, Cicero, and Thomas Aquinas.

4319 Philosophical Writing, Research and Oral Presentation Prerequisite(s): Junior standing or above. Enhancing philosophical writing skills, promoting proficiency with new computer research technologies, and refining oral communication skills.

4320 The Philosophy of Religion A philosophical inquiry into such topics as the existence and nature of God, religious experience, immortality, the problem of evil, the relationship between reason and faith, the meaning of religious language and symbols, and the validity of religious knowledge claims. Methods of contemporary philosophical analysis are used in clarifying religious concepts.

4321 Metaphysics A critical analysis of classical and contemporary metaphysical systems and problems. These include the world views found in the philosophies of naturalism, idealism, personalism, positivism, pragmatism, organicism, and existentialism. Problem areas considered are mind-body relations, cosmology, ontology, philosophical anthropology, universals, determinism, and freedom. Basic categories such substance, cause, time, space, matter, and form are critically examined. Attention also is focused upon methods and criteria employed in metaphysical study.

4324 Philosophy in Literature A critical study of philosophical material in literature, that is, a study of the philosophy to be found in essays, novels, poems, and plays. Among the authors usually studied are Plato, Aristotle, Theophrastus, Lucretius, Voltaire, Goethe, Ibsen, Nietzsche, Kafka, Camus, Sartre, Malraux, and Hesse, as well as selected contemporary novelists.

4325 Literary and Philosophical Perspectives on Medicine (Cross-listed as BIO 4325 ENG 4325) Examination of literature dealing with illness, disease, pain, and death in order to understand better how societal perceptions and values of the care-giver affect the patient. Study of literary, philosophical, and medical works; each student will present a significant work for discussion, together with a major paper in one of these areas.

4331 Latin American Philosophy Prerequisite(s): Consent of instructor. Philosophical and intellectual movements in Latin America from the colonial times to the present. These movements include scholasticism, eclecticism, utilitarianism, romanticism, positivism, vitalism, phenomenology, and existentialism and philosophies of liberation. Works of major representatives of these movements (including such men as Bello, Mora, Sierra, Varona, Deustua, Caso, Korn, Vasconcelos, Farias Brito, Vaz Ferreira, and Romero) are studied.

4340 East Asian Philosophy (Cross-listed as AST 4340) An historical and critical survey of the major movements in Chinese, Indian, or Japanese philosophy. Course may be repeated once with different area of concentration.

4341 Contemporary Continental Philosophy A critical study of philosophical movements in Europe during the past one hundred and fifty years. Some of the major philosophers studied include Nietzsche, Husserl, Adorno, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, Sartre, de Beauvoir, Wittgenstein, Russell, Carnap, Gadamer, Habermas, Lyotard, Foucault, and Derrida. Movements studies include phenomenology, positivism, naturalism, critical theory, existentialism, structuralism, deconstructionism, and post modernism. Course may be repeated once with a different area of concentration.

4342 Contemporary American Philosophy (Cross-listed as AMS 4342) A critical study of philosophical movements in the United States during the past one hundred years. Some of the philosophers whose works are studied include Pierce, James, Royce, Dewey, Mead, Lewis, Santayana, Whitehead, and Quine. Recent movements such as critical realism, naturalism, humanism, personalism, logical positivism, and linguistic analysis are also studied.

4345 Intermediate Logic Prerequisite(s): Upper-level standing. The language of first-order logic as a formal deductive system.

4353 Philosophy of Language Prerequisite(s): Consent of instructor. Critical examination of the basic problems in general semantics and philosophy of language, giving special attention to the major authors in these fields.

4360 Contemporary Ethical Theory Critical study of major problems discussed in contemporary ethical writings. Attention is given to such issues as the subject matter and methodology of contemporary ethical inquiry, the justification of ethical beliefs, theories of intrinsic value, theories of right action, the generalization principle, and the problem of freedom, determinism, and moral responsibility. Philosophers whose works may be considered include G.E. Moore, Ross, Stevenson, Hare, Toulmin, Perry, Dewey, Baier, Brandt, Rawls, and MacIntyre.

4361 Social Philosophy A critical survey of the fundamental concepts and theories used in justifying social institutions. Problems such as authority, law, freedom, rights, equality, responsibility, power, justice, the state, and justification of open societies are considered.

4363 Philosophy and Medicine Philosophical approaches to clinical medicine and contemporary health care, focusing on experience as a basis for knowledge.

4365 Jewish Philosophy Prerequisite(s): Upper-level standing or consent of the instructor. Jewish Philosophy in the twentieth century, with emphasis on the relation between mortality and morality, justice and totalitarianism, faith after the Holocaust, and individualism and revolution.

4397 Islam and Democracy (Cross-listed as CHS 4379 and PSC 4379) Examines the evolution of political philosophy and instructions in Muslim culture.

4385 Religious Ethics in a Liberal Democracy (Cross-listed as CHS 4385) Addresses both historical and contemporary arguments about the relationship between religious morality and liberal democracy. pays particular attention to the debate about the role of religious forms of ethics/morality in public debate, public choices, and the decoctions of political actors.

4V99 Special Topics in Philosophy (Cross-listed as AMS 4V99) 1 to 3 sem. hrs. Prerequisite(s): Senior or graduate standing and consent of instructor. Research projects to be undertaken by students or by classes under the direct supervision of the professor. Course may be repeated once with a different topic of study.