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Cultivating Citizens: Soulcraft and Citizenship in Contemporary America

Cultivating Citizens

Pruit Memorial Symposium
Thursday, October 28 - Saturday, October 30, 1999

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Program Description

America's material state has arguably never been better, but many contemporary observers express deep concern for our democracy. Some point to complex pathologies that afflict important segments of society. Others note that disaffection and even cynicism pervade the electorate at large. Still others contend that a public spirited concern for the common good is on the wane.

In response to such troubling observations, calls for revitalizing our sense of citizenship and those conditions that nurture it have become increasingly frequent. Some scholars argue, however, that revitalizing citizenship is not possible within the parameters of America's prevailing public philosophy--political liberalism. Others insist that only by drawing from the deep wells of our liberal tradition can we hope to reinvigorate democracy. Baylor University invites you to join us as we discuss these important concerns through plenary sessions, panel discussions, and presented papers.


Alexander Astin

Dr. Astin is one of the leading scholars in the field of higher education. He received his doctorate in psychology from the University of Maryland and is the Allan Murray Cartter Professor of Higher Education and Organizational Change at the University of California, Los Angeles. He is also Director of the Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA that serves as an interdisciplinary center for research, evaluation, information, policy studies, and research training in postsecondary education.

His research interests include values and spirituality in education, educational reform, higher education policy in the United States, and the impact of different types of institutions on student development. He has published numerous books and articles including What Matters in College?, Achieving Educational Excellence, and Assessment for Excellence: The Philosophy and Practice of Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education.

He is the Founding Director of the Cooperative Institutional Research Program, an ongoing national study of some nine million students, 250,000 faculty and staff, and 1500 higher education institutions.

Jean Bethke Elshtain

In the area of social and political philosophy, Dr. Elshtain is perhaps best known for her rich examination of the connections between our political and ethical convictions. She received her doctorate from Brandeis University and is the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Professor of Social and Political Ethics at the University of Chicago with joint appointments in The Divinity School, the Department of Political Science, and the Committee on International Relations.

Her books include Public Man, Private Woman: Women in Social Thought, The Family in Political Thought, Meditations on Modern Political Thought, Women and War; Democracy on Trial, Augustine and the Limits of Politics, and Real Politics: At the Center of Everyday Life. Professor Elshtain writes widely for journals of civic opinion and lectures, both in the United States and abroad, on whether democracy will prove sufficiently robust and resilient to survive.

She is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; Chair of the Council on Civil Society; and a member of the Board of Trustees of the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton University and the National Humanities Center.

John Milbank

John Milbank ranks among the leading figures in contemporary theology. He received his doctorate from Birmingham University in England and is currently Francis Ball Professor in Philosophical Theology at the University of Virginia. Prior to assuming this post Milbank was a Fellow of Peterhouse and Lecturer in Theology at the University of Cambridge.

He has written or edited seven books, including his highly acclaimed Theology and Social Theory, in which he offers a comprehensive account of the relation between theology and social theory from Plato to Derrida and Deleuze.

With his most recent book, The Word Made Strange, Milbank develops a theological account of language by which he seeks to establish that no secular construct of language offers any true possibility of meaning. He applies this account across a wide range of theological and ethical topics, striving at every point to get beyond the prevailing alternatives of liberalism and neo-orthodoxy.

Cary Nederman

An associate professor of political science at the University of Arizona, Dr. Nederman has established himself as a premier authority on medieval political thought. He is also a founding member and the current president of the Society for the Study of Medieval Political Thought. He received his doctorate from York University in Toronto and has taught at Glendon College, University of Alberta, University of Canterbury, and Siena College.

His numerous publications include Beyond the Persecuting Society: Religious Toleration Before the Enlightenment, Medieval Aristotelianism and Its Limits: Classical Traditions in Moral and Political Philosophy, and Community and Consent: The Secular Political Theory of Marsigilio of Padua's Defensor Pacis.

Walter Nicgorski

Dr. Nicgorski is Professor in the Program of Liberal Studies and concurrent Professor of Government and International Studies at the University of Notre Dame. He is also the editor of The Review of Politics.

He received his doctorate from the University of Chicago in political science. His principal interests lie in the areas of ancient political thought, the American founding, and the theory and practice of moral and liberal education.

His articles on Cicero and other topics have appeared in Political Theory, Interpretation, and the Political Science Reviewer. His publications also include, An Almost Chosen People: The Moral Aspirations of Americans and Leo Strauss: Political Philosopher and Jewish Thinker. He has been the recipient of a Lilly Endowment faculty fellowship, as well as research fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Bradley Foundation, and the Earhart Foundation. At present, he is completing a book on the political philosophy of Cicero.

Michael Sandel

A leading public intellectual in contemporary America, Dr. Sandel is best known for his critique of political liberalism, especially as expressed by John Rawls. Dr. Sandel is Professor of Government at Harvard University, where he has taught courses in political theory and philosophy since 1980. His core course "Justice" is reported to be one of the most popular in the College. He also teaches a course on law and political theory at Harvard Law School.

Dr. Sandel received his doctorate from Oxford University. He has received fellowship awards from the Ford Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the American Council of Learned Societies. In 1998, he delivered the Tanner Lectures on Human Values at Brasenose College, Oxford. He also chairs Harvard's Advisory Committee on Free Speech

His publications include Democracy's Discontent: America in Search of a Public Philosophy, Liberalism and the Limits of Justice, and Liberalism and its Critics. He has also published widely in academic journals and law reviews as well as newsweeklies, such as The New Republic.

Nathan Tarcov

A leading authority on the educational writings of John Locke, Dr. Tarcov's scholarly interests and involvements also include Machiavelli, Rousseau, the American founders, and U.S. foreign policy.

He received his doctorate from Harvard University and is currently Professor of Social Thought, Political Science, and the College at the University of Chicago. In 1997, he received the Quantrell Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Education from the University of Chicago. Dr. Tarcov is also the Director of the John M. Olin Center for Inquiry into the Theory & Practice of Democracy and a past member of the Policy Planning Staff of the U.S. Department of State.

Dr. Tarcov's publications include Locke's Education for Liberty, Machiavelli's Discourses on Livy, and The Legacy of Rousseau. At present, he is at work on a book-length study of Machiavelli's Prince.

Alan Wolfe

Alan Wolfe is the recently appointed Director of the new Center for Religion and American Public Life at Boston College. As a public intellectual, Professor Wolfe writes frequently about the moral issues in public life in The New Republic, Wilson Quarterly, Commonweal, Harper's, the New York Times, and the Washington Post.

He is the author of numerous books, including One Nation, After All, Marginalized in the Middle, The Human Difference: Animals, Computers, and the Necessity of Social Science, and Whose Keeper? Social Science and Moral Obligation.


Thursday, October 28, 1999

1:30 to 1:50 p.m.


1:50 to 3:20 p.m.

Plenary Session I

Alexander Astin, University of California-Los Angeles: Higher Education in the Cultivation of Citizenship

3:30 to 4:45 p.m.

Concurrent Session I

A. Author meets Critics: David Toole, Waiting for Godot in Sarajevo

  • Barry Harvery, Baylor University, Chair
  • Anne Marie Bowery, Baylor University
  • David Solomon, University of Notre Dame
  • John Milbank, University of Virginia
  • Response to Critics: David Toole, University of Montana

B. Educating for Citizenship

  • David Ball, Denison University: Service Learning and Democratic Renewal
  • Gordon Grant, Baylor University: Liberal Aesthetics and Cultural Republics: Literary Education and Its Relation to Citizenship
  • Mariano Magalhaes, Roosevelt University: Cyberpolitics and Citizenship in the United States

C. Race and Citizenship

  • Nathan Schlueter, University of Dallas: One Dream or Two? Justice in America and the Thought of Martin Luther King
  • Randolph Meade Walker, LeMoyne-Owen College: Identification and Eradication of Bigotry's Bond

D. Ancient Soulcraft: Plato, Aristotle, and Augustine

  • Sung Wu Park, University of Chicago: Bringing the Politics of Soulcraft Back into a ReReading of Plato's Republic
  • Dwight Allman, Baylor University: Care of the Soul/Care of the City in Plato, Aristotle, and Augustine

E. Anabaptist and Baptist Contributions to Citizenship

  • James Calvin Davis, University of Virginia: Moral Pluralism and Conviction: Roger Williams's Hope for Civility
  • Michael Minch, University of Utah: Is Community Always Good? Is All Citizenship Equal?

4:45 to 7:30 p.m.

Free Time

7:30 to 9:00 p.m.

Keynote Address

Jean Bethke Elshtain, University of Chicago

Friday, October 29, 1999

9:00 to 10:20 a.m.

Concurrent Session II

A. Civil Religion and Soulcraft (Locke & Rousseau)

  • Robert C. Miner, Boston College, Chair
  • Geoff Bowden, University of Notre Dame: Elisha Williams and Lockeanization of Civil Society
  • Ronald Weed, St. Louis University: J. J. Rousseau on Civil Religion
  • A. J. Conyers, Baylor University: Pierre Bayle and the Modern Sanctity of the Individual

B. Critiques of Liberalism

  • Andrew Murphy, Villanova University: Narratives of Liberal Decay: Religious, Communal, & Environmental Accounts of Decline and Contemporary America
  • Nicholas Meriwether, Shawnee State University: Democracy, Tradition, and the Civic Virtues

C. Soulcraft and Alternative Virtues: Hospitality

  • Scott H. Moore, Baylor University, Chair
  • Rick Kyte, Christian Brothers University: Character Formation and the Virtues of Hospitality
  • Amy Oden, Oklahoma City University: A Light in the Window: Hospitality in Early Christian Communities
  • Beth Newman, Saint Mary's College (IN): The Politics of Higher Education: Hospitality as a Counter Practice

D. Legislation, Morality, and Civic Virtue

  • David Solomon, University of Notre Dame, Chair
  • Mary Keys, University of Notre Dame: Aquinas's Two Pedagogies: A Reconsideration of the Relation Between Law and Moral Virtue
  • John von Heyking, University of Calgary: Soulcraft, Citizenship, and Church-craft: The View from Hippo
  • Rebecca Konyndyk DeYoung, Calvin College: Thomistic Resources for Cultivating Virtuous Citizens

E. Christianity and Democracy

  • Edwark Langerak, St. Olaf University: A Christian Argument for Political Self-Restraint
  • Ashley Woodiwiss, Wheaton College: Cultivating Citizens for an Agnostic Democracy
  • Mark Hall, East Central University: Emma Willard on Citizenship and Politics

11:00 to 12:20 p.m.

Plenary Session II

John Milbank, University of Virginia: Pedagogy and Politics

12:20 to 2:00 p.m.

Free Time

2:00 to 3:20 p.m.

Plenary Panel: History of Soulcraft: Ancient, Medievel, Modern

  • Walter Nicgorski, University of Notre Dame: Cicero, Citizenship, and the Epicurean Temptation
  • Cary Nederman, University of Arizona
  • Nathan Tarcov, University of Chicago

3:15 to 3:30 p.m.


3:40 to 5:00 p.m.

Concurrent Session III

A. Modern Soulcraft: A Kinder, Gentler Education (Locke and Nietzsche)

  • Steve Forde, University of North Texas
  • Lawrence Nee, University of North Texas
  • Nathan Tarcov, University of Chicago

B. Soulcraft and the "Baptifesto"

  • Michael Byrd, Vanderbilt University: The Miscarriage of Soul Competency in the "Baptifesto"
  • Curtis Freeman, Houston Baptist University, Respondent
  • Michael Broadway, Shaw University

C. Jurisprudence and the Rule of Law

  • Jonathan G. O'Neill, University of Maryland: Original Intent Jurisprudence: Challenging the Judicialism of Citizenship in the Modern Liberal State
  • Richard Dougherty, University of Dallas: The Nature of Morality of Law: Law-Making and Law Abiding

D. Christianity and Democracy

  • Eduardo Echeverria, Conception Seminary College: Integral Humanism: Toward a New Christendom
  • Mark Lowery, University of Dallas: The Principle of Subsidiary and the Revitalization of Democracy in America

E. Citizenship and Transnational Identity

  • Clint Baldwin, University of Kentucky, Chair
  • Sura P. Rath, Louisiana State University-Shreveport: Diaspora, Identity, and the Democratic Imagination
  • Clinton Bennett, Baylor University: Soulcraft for a Multi-religious Society
  • Allen Hertzke, University of Oklahoma: Global Religious Persecution, Christian Activism, and Civic Renewal

5:00 to 7:30 p.m.

Free Time

Plenary Session IV

Alan Wolfe, Boston University: Have Americans Lost Their Sense of Virtue?

Saturday, October 30, 1999

9:00 to 10:20 a.m.

Concurrent Session IV

A. Priority of Civic Participation

  • Robert Prevost, Wingate University: Political Liberalism and Civic Participation: A Case For Federalism
  • Heather Tosterson, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion: Social Trust and the Common Good: Public Health as a Forum for Responsibilities-Based Ethos

B. Authors Meet Critics: Steven V. Monsma and J. Christopher Sopher: The Challenge of Pluralism: Church and State in Five Democracies

  • Derek Davis, Baylor University
  • Ted Jelen, University of Nevada, Las Vegas
  • Nikolas Gvosdev, Baylor University
  • Response to Critics: Stephen V. Monsma and J. Christohpher Soper, Pepperdine University

C. Christianity and Deomcracy

  • Steve Blakemore: Dual Citizenship but One Lord: Making the Christian Case for Universally Normative Morality in Contemporary Life
  • Michael Beaty, Baylor University: Educating for Citizenship in the Christian University
  • J. Daryl Charles, Taylor University: Making Others Believe: The Role of Language in Political Cohesion and Political Decay

D. Rival Virtues and Democratic Citizenship

  • Norman Wirzba, Georgetown College: Soil Cultivating Citizenship: An Agrarian Contribution to Political Life
  • Steven Hendley, Birmingham-Southern College: The New Political Economy of Citizenship: Flexible Capitalism and Character
  • Thomas Grassey, Naval War College: The Military Ethos in a Democracy

E. Reconceptualizing the Polity

  • Roger Ward, Georgetown College: Peirce and Politics
  • Charles Matthews, University of Virginia: Beyond Power Politics: Theology, Community, and the Hermeneutics of Charity

11:00 to 12:20 p.m.

Plenary Session V

Michael Sandel, Harvard University, Citizenship and Community in Contemporary America

2:00 to 4:00 p.m.

Closing Panel

Plenary speakers reflect on the various aspects of cultivating citizens addressed throughout the conference