"The Palestinian Liberation Organization in the 1960s: Causes of Terrorism and the Fatah-led “Iron Wall of Aggression”"
by Paul Baumgardner
The territorial division of Palestine in 1948 accommodated the creation of Israel as a Jewish state but displaced large numbers of Palestinian Arabs. The Israeli strategy of an “Iron Wall of Aggression,” first formulated by Zionist Vladimir Jabotinsky, led Israel to project a forceful military presence to gain domestic and international political leverage. A version of this same philosophy was eventually also adopted by the displaced and disenfranchised Palestinian Arabs, who, through the Palestinian Liberation Organization, used violence and terrorism to force political and diplomatic concessions from Israel and the world.
"Acquiring a Necessity: Medicine in the Beleaguered South"
by Lindsay Smith
Many popular impressions of the Civil War recognize the Confederacy’s struggle to provide adequate medical care for its soldiers and civilians. However, descriptions of Southern war-time medical practice often fail to portray the ingenuity and initiative displayed by the Confederacy in its attempt to curtail medical shortages. This paper describes the rise of the medical industry in the South during the Civil War, focusing particularly on the establishment and operations of the Confederate Medical Laboratories.
"Music and Society in the British Colonies of North America: From the Plymouth Colony through the American Revolution"
by Andrew Stiefel
The social hierarchy present among the cultural groups in the British North American colonies is reflected in the differing musical styles of the respective groups. Each musical style portrays the values and structure of the group that created it as well as the group’s place in society. Native American music relied heavily on oral tradition and supported religious practices; however, little is known about it. Puritan psalmody relied exclusively on the group’s religious beliefs, and its simple style supported their austere worship practices. The ballad, another European genre, represented a more secular dimension of the musical movement and was used to spread political propaganda and other information about popular culture. African American music focused on community and provided the slaves with an emotional and creative outlet.
"The Mississippi Freedom Schools: Catalysts for the Development of Black Identity in the Eyes of the Students and the Teachers"
by Abby Worland
The Mississippi Delta, an agricultural region traditionally plagued by economic hardship and racial tension, was the chosen site for the 1964 Freedom Schools. This project brought white northern volunteer teachers to the Delta in an attempt to improve the quality of education for black students and to instill in them a greater sense of racial pride. While these efforts for their students succeeded on a small scale, the teachers also left the fields of Mississippi changed. In their experience, the nationwide civil rights movement ceased to be merely an idealistic struggle they endorsed and became instead a deeply personal endeavor.