Baylor University
Department of Physics
College of Arts and Sciences

Baylor > Physics > Faculty > Dr. Gerald B. Cleaver
Dr. Gerald B. Cleaver

Faculty - Gerald Cleaver

BSB E319, (254) 710-2283

Professor and Graduate Program Director


Ph.D. Physics California Institute of Technology 1993
M.S. Physics California Institute of Technology 1988
B.S. Mathematics Valparaiso University 1985
B.S. Physics Valparaiso University 1985


Gerald Cleaver is a Professor of Physics at Baylor University and Graduate Program Director. He is a member of the Physics Department’s High Energy Physics group and also heads the Early Universe Cosmology and String Theory division of Baylor’s Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics, and Engineering Research. Gerald earned his Ph.D. at Caltech in 1993, where he studied under John H. Schwarz, one of the founders of string theory. Cleaver has written over 80 peer-reviewed journal papers and conference proceedings, which have received over 1300 total citations. He is the author of four book chapters and a co-author of one text book.

Academic Interests and Research

Gerald Cleaver’s specialty is Superstring Theory, which unifies all forces in nature (gravity, electromagnetics, and the two nuclear forces). In superstring theory each elementary particle in nature originates as a distinct vibration of a single type of string (or loop) of energy, much as different musical notes are produced from a single violin string. Gerald’s current research topics in string theory include the construction of phenomenologically realistic superstring models, string/M-theory cosmology, and the string landscape. With former postdoc Tibra Ali (now at the Perimeter Institute in Canada) Cleaver investigated half-flat manifolds for heterotic strings. With his undergraduate and graduate students,

Cleaver is conducting a long-term systematic study of the global physical properties of the string landscape in the free-fermionic heterotic region, including patterns in flat directions in the effective field theories, hidden sector condensates, and supersymmetry breaking. These studies are contributing to an overall goal of the string/M theory community to determine if our universe is consistent with a string/M multiverse.

Cleaver is also interested in the general concept of multiverse, not just the string/M-derived class. In his spare time he is writing a book on philosophical and theological implications of a multiverse and has contributed related chapters in associated books.

Cleaver has joined colleague Anzhong Wang to research a range of aspects of Horava-Lifshitz theory and possible trans-Planckian physics of the early universe and observable implications of each.

Cleaver is also a member of the XP4 division of Icarus Interstellar, a non-profit organization created by his Ph.D. graduate Dr. Richard Obousy. Members of XP4 are exploring advanced propulsion systems and energy generation concepts for interstellar spacecraft, including possible string/M-theory realization of the Alcubierre effect.

Research Interests

Theoretical Particle Physics

* Phenomenology of String Derived Models

* Observable/Hidden Sector Mirror Models
* M-Theory Phenomenology

Early Universe Cosmology and Strings
Division of CASPER

* String/M Landscape Investigations
* Casimir Effects in Branes
* String and Brane Cosmology

Icarus Interstellar XP4
* Alcubierre Warp Effect
* Matter-Antimatter Propulsion Systems

Selected Publications

Scalar and tensor perturbations in loop quantum gravity: high-order corrections, with T. Zhu, A. Wang, K. Kirsten, and Q. Sheng, arXiv:1508.03239 [gr-qc].

Black Suns: Ocular Invisibility of Relativistic Luminous Astrophysical Bodies, with J. Lee, arXiv:1508.04817 [phys.gen-ph]; submitted to Advances in Astronomy.

Ultra-Relativistic Density Inflation of Astrophysical Bodies in Apparent Black Holes, with J. Lee, submitted to Journal of Astrophysics.

Relativistic Drag and Emission Pressure in an Isotropic Photonic Gas, with J. Lee, arXiv:1508.00534 [gr-qc]; submitted to Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy.

Detecting Quantum Gravitational Effects of Loop Quantum Cosmology in the Early Universe? arXiv:1503.06761, by Tao Zhu, Anzhong Wang, Gerald Cleaver, Klaus Kirsten, and Qin Sheng.

Ultra Relativistic Thermodynamics and Aberrations of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, Mod. Phys. Lett. A30 (2015) 09, 1550045, by Jeff Lee and Gerald Cleaver.

Power Spectra and Spectral Indices of k-Inflation: Higher Order Corrections, Physical Review D90 (2014) 103517, arXiv:1407.8011, by Tao Zhu, Anzhong Wang, Gerald Cleaver, Klaus Kirsten, and Qin Sheng.

Effects of External Radiation on an Alcubierre Warp Bubble, submitted to Classical and Quantum Gravity, by Jeff Lee and Gerald Cleaver.

The Inabiity of the White-Juday Warp Field Interferometer to Spectrally Resolve Spacetime Distortions, arXiv:1407. 7772, submitted to General Relativity and Gravity, by Jeff Lee and Gerald Cleaver.

Effects of Higher-Order Operators in Non-Relativistic Lifshitz Holography, Physical Review D91 (2015) 6, 064018; arXiv:1407.1194, by Xinwen Wang, Jie Yang, Mio Tian, Anzhong Wang, Yanbin Deng, and Gerald Cleaver.

Gravitational Quantum Effects on Power Spectra and Spectral Indices with Higher-Order Corrections, Physical Review D90 (2014) 063503, by Tao Zhu, Anzhong Wang, Gerald Cleaver, Klaus Kirsten, and Qin Sheng.

Inflationary Cosmology with Nonlinear Dispersion Relations, Physical Review D89 (2014) 043507; arXiv:1308.5708, by Tao Zhu, Anzhong Wang, Gerald Cleaver, Klaus Kirsten, and Qin Sheng.

Constructing Analytical Solutions of Linear Perturbations of Inflation with Modified Dispersion Relations, Int, J. of Mod. Phys. A29 (2014) 23, 1450142, arXiv:1308.1104, by Tao Zhu, Anzhong Wang, Gerald Cleaver, Klaus Kirsten, and Qin Sheng.

Gauge Models in D-Dimensions, Mod. Phys. Lett. A28 (20113) 1350055, arXiv:1302.5353, by Doug Moore, Jared Greenwald, and Gerald Cleaver.

Initial Systematic Investigation of the Landscape of Low Layer NAHE-Variation Extensions, arXiv:1111.1917. ISRN High Energy Physics (2013) 595070; arXiv:1111.1263, by Jared Greenwald, Doug Moore, Tim Renner, and Gerald Cleaver.

Initial Systematic Investigation of the Landscape of Low Layer NAHE Extensions, Euro. Phys. J. C72 (2012) 2167; arXiv:1111.1263, by Jared Greenwald, Doug Moore, Tim Renner, and Gerald Cleaver

Systematic Investigations of the Free Fermionic Heterotic String Gauge Group Statistics: Layer One Results, Mod. Phys. Lett. A26 (2011) 4451, arXiv:1107.5758, by Doug Moore, Jared Greenwald, Tim Renner, Matt Robinson, Cameran Buescher, Michael Janas, Gunner Miller, Scott Ruhnau, and Gerald Cleaver.

Redundancies in Explicitly Constructed Ten Dimensional Heterotic String Models, Intl. J. of Mod. Phys. A26 (2011) 4451, arXiv:1107.3138, by T. Renner, Jared Greenwald, Doug Moore, and Gerald Cleaver.

Investigations of Quasi-Realistic Heterotic String Models with Reduced Higgs Spectrum, Euro. Phys. J. C71 (2011) 1842, arXiv:1105.0447, by Alon Faraggi, Jared Greenwald, Doug Moore, Kristen Pechan, Eric Remkus, Tim Renner, and Gerald Cleaver

Note on a NAHE Variation, Nucl. Phys. B850 (2011) 445, arXiv:0912.5207 [hep-ph], by Jared Greenwald, Kristen Pechan, Tim Renner, Tibra Ali, and Gerald Cleaver

Branes in the MD x Md+ x Md- Compactification of type II string on S1 /Z2 and their cosmological applications, JHEP 10 (2009) 095; arXiv: 0907.1756 [hep-ph], by Michael Devin, Tibra Ali, Gerald Cleaver, Anzhong Wang, and Qiang Wu.

A Non-Standard String Embedding of E8, Mod. Phys. Lett. A24 (2009) 1577-1582; arXiv: 0810-1038 [hep-ph], by Richard Obousy, and Matthew Robinson, and Gerald Cleaver.

Free Fermionic Heterotic Model Building and Root Systems, Mod. Phys. Lett. A20 (2009) 2703-2715; arXiv: 0809.5094 [hep-th], by Matthew Robinson, Gerald Cleaver, and Markus Hunziker.

Radius Destabilization in Five Dimensional Orbifolds from Lorentz Violating Fields, Mod. Phys. Lett. A24 (2009) 1495-1506; arXiv: 0805.0019 [gr-qc], by Richard Obousy and Gerald Cleaver.

Quasi-Realistic Heterotic-String Models with Vanishing One-Loop Cosmological Constant and Perturbatively Broken Supersymmetry? Phys. Rev. D78 (2008) 046009; arXiv:0802.0470 [hep-th], by Gerald Cleaver, Alon Faraggi, Elisa Manno, and Cristina Timirgaziu.

A Note on the Standard Embedding on Half-Flat Manifolds, JHEP 0807 (2008) 121; arXiv:0711.3248 [hep-th], by Tibra Ali and Gerald B. Cleaver.

Warp Drive: A New Approach, J. Brit. Interplanetary Soc. September, 2008; arXiv:0712.1649 [gr-qc], by Richard Obousy and Gerald Cleaver.

A Simple Introduction to Particle Physics: Part II. Geometric Foundations, Gauge Theories, and Relativity, Book draft; arXiv:0908.1395 [hep-th],
by Matthew Robinson, Tibra Ali, and G. Cleaver.

Symmetry and the Standard Model, (Springer, New York, 2011),
by Matthew Robinson, Karen Bland, Gerald Cleaver, Jay Dittmann, and Mario Serna.

In Search of the (Minimal Supersymmetric) Standard Model String. Chapter 2 of String Theory Research Progress, F. Balogh, ed., (Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2008); hep-ph/0703027,
by Gerald Cleaver.

Current Graduate Students
Yanbin Deng, Branden Mattingly

Current Undergraduate Students
Rob Gill, Kameron Scott

Past Graduate Students

Yanbin Deng, Ph.D. 2015, Dissertation: Reflections on General Relativity from Perspectives of Black Hole Physics and Hoˇrava-Lifshitz Gravity

Doug Moore, Ph.D. 2014, Dissertation: The Weakly Coupled Free Fermionic Heterotic String Gauge Landscape

Jared Greenwald, Ph.D. 2013, Dissertation: Automated Systematic Generation and Exploration of Flat Direction Phenomenology in Free Fermionic Heterotic String Theory

Tim Renner, Ph.D. 2011, Dissertation: Initial Systematic Investigations of the Weakly Coupled Free Fermionic Heterotic String Landscape Statistics

Kristin Pechan, M.S. 2010, Thesis: Investigation of Low Higgs Models in Weakly Coupled Free Fermionic Heterotic String Theory

Matt Robinson, Ph.D. 2009, Dissertation: Towards a Systematic Investigation of Weakly Coupled Free Fermionic Heterotic String Gauge Group Statistics

Richard Obousy, Ph.D. 2008, Dissertation: Investigations into Compactified Dimensions: Casimir Energies and Phenomenological Aspects

Ben Dundee, M.S. 2006, Dissertation: Grand Unified Theoreis in Higher Dimensions: From the Heterotic String to Randall-Sundrum

John Perkins, Ph.D. 2005, Thesis: Aspects of String Phenomenology at the Self-Dual Radius

Past Postdocs Tibra Ali

Courses Taught

PHY 1420 - General Physics I
PHY 1430 - General Physics II
PHY 3372 - Intro Quantum Mechanics I
PHY 3373 - Intro Quantum Mechanics II
PHY 4373 - Intro Nuclear & Particle Physics
PHY 5370 - Quantum Mechanics I
PHY 5371 - Quantum Mechanics II
PHY 5381 - Special Topics: String Cosmology
PHY 5V95 - Graduate Research in Superstrings
PHY 5V99 - Thesis in Superstrings
PHY 6373 - Quantum Field Theory I
PHY 6374 - Quantum Field Theory II
PHY 6375 - Quantum Field Theory III
PHY 6V99 - Dissertation

HON 3200 - Honors Colloquium
BIC 4389 - Senior Capstone

Professional Activities

Gerald Cleaver is a member of American Physical Society, Sigma Phi Sigma, the American Association of Physics Teachers, and the Mathematical Association of America. He is a Fellow of the American Scientific Affiliation.

Cleaver is a physics textbook reviewer for McGraw-Hill and Thomas Learning, was a consultant and contributor to McGraw-Hill’s Grade Summit Project, a reviewer for Pearson Education Texas K-12 science textbooks, and a member of the Texas State Review Panel for Supplementary high school science material. He is a referee for Physical Review Letters, European Physical Journal, Modern Physics Letters A, General Relativity & Gravity, Acta Astronautica, Physics Essays, ISRN Mathematical Physics, and Scientific Journals International. Cleaver is a frequent judge at local, regional, and state Science and Engineering Fairs.


Gerald Cleaver is a member of several honor societies including Sigma Pi Sigma Physics H.S., Sigma Xi Science H.S., Sigma Rho Phi Science and Theology H.S., Mortar Board, and Alpha Lambda Delta. He was a recipient of a Mensa graduate fellowship and Presidential and Valparaiso University scholarships and was a National Merit Scholar. Cleaver received the Lumina Award for Academic Excellence at Valparaiso. He is a current or past member of Mensa, the Triple-9 Society, the International Society for Philosophical Enquiry, and the Prometheus Society.

Hobbies and Interests

Radio-Controlled Model Aviation, Tae Kwon Do, Sailing, SCUBA, Snow Skiing, & Scouting