The term biomarker (biological marker) refers to any substance, structure, or process that can be measured in a living organism or its products and influence or predict the incidence of an outcome or disease. In practice, biomarkers include tools and technologies that can aid in understanding the prediction, cause, diagnosis, progression, regression, or outcome of treatment of disease. Researchers in the Department of Environmental Science conducts studies on the application of biomarkers in the diagnosis and management of diseases, infections, immunological and cancer disorders. In addition, research efforts in the department are focused in the development of novel, more sensitive validated biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility to the adverse effects of terrestrial and aquatic pollutants.