Volume 48 Spring 2006 Number 2
- EDITORIAL: The Journal and the Tradition of Religious Liberty
- Should the United States Support Religious Education in the Islamic World?
- Governance and the Religion Question: Voluntaryism, Disestablishment, and America’s Church-State Proposition
- Cardinal Humberto Medeiros and the Desegregation of Boston’s Public Schools, 1974-1976
- Local Compliance with Supreme Court Decisions: Making Space for Religious
- Expression in Public Schools
C.F. ABEL AND HANS HACKER
- The Problem of Church and State: Dissenting Politics and the London Missionary
Society in 1830s Britain
MICHAEL A. RUTZ
- The Religious Geography of Religious Expression: Local Governments, Courts,
and the First Amendment
JOHN C. BLAKEMAN
- A Political History of Bektashism from Ottoman Anatolia to Contemporary Turkey
- Hauerwas, Stanley. Performing the Faith: Bonhoeffer and the Practice of Nonviolence
- Block, Ed, Jr. Glory, Grace, and Culture: The Work of Hans Urs Von Balthasar
- Charles, J. Daryl. Between Pacifism and Jihad: Just War and Christian Tradition
- Deneen, Patrick J. Democratic Faith
- Roberts, J. Deotis. A Black Political Theology
RUFUS BURROW, JR.
- Lännström, Anna, ed. The Stranger’s Religion: Fascination and Fear
ROBERT H. AZBUG
- Yannoulatos, Archbishop Anastasios. Facing the World: Orthodox Christian Essays on Global Concerns
DANIEL P. PAYNE
- Roudeoetof, Victor, Alexander Agadjanian, and Jerry Pankhurst, eds. Eastern Orthodoxy in a Global Age: Tradition Faces the Twenty-First Century
- McCarthy, Conor, ed. Love, Sex and Marriage in the Middle Ages: A Sourcebook
R. DEAN DAVENPORT
- Rublack, Ulinka. Reformation Europe (New Approaches to European History Series)
TIMOTHY G. FEHLER
- Stjernø, Steinar. Solidarity in Europe: The History of an Idea
DAVID J. DIEPHOUSE
- Alvis, Robert E. Religion and the Rise of Nationalism: A Profile of an East-Central European City
TIMOTHY A. BYRNES
- Collins, Michael. The Fisherman’s Net: The Influence of the Popes on History
- Himes, Kenneth R., ed. Modern Catholic Social Teaching: Commentaries and Interpretations
CLARKE E. COCHRAN
- O’Brien, Thomas W. John Courtney Murray in a Cold War Context
KEVIN B. FAGAN
Bacote, Vincent E. The Spirit in Public Theology: Appropriating the Legacy of
ALAN L. CHAN
- Weir, David A. Early New England: A Covenanted Society
ROBERT E. CRAY, JR.
Bennett, James B. Religion and the Rise of Jim Crow in New Orleans
GAINES M. FOSTER
- Holifield, E. Brooks. Theology in America: Christian Thought from the Age of the Puritans to the Civil War
SCOTT D. SEAY
- Best, Wallace D. Passionately Human, No Less Divine: Religion and Culture in Black Chicago, 1915-1952
CHARLES L. GLENN
- Hamilton, Marci A. God vs. the Gavel: Religion and the Rule of Law
- Wuthnow, Robert. America and the Challenges of Religious Diversity
- Notes on Church-State Affairs
David W. Hendon and Charles McDaniel
- Calendar of Events in Church and State
- Books Received
Notes on Church-State Affairs
David W. Hendon and Charles McDaniel
A court in Kabul put Adul Rahman on trial for converting to Christianity. Rahman converted sixteen years earlier while working with a Christian group helping refugees in Pakistan. When he became estranged from his family, they denounced him to officials. Prosecutors said he should be put to death under Sharia law, one of the bases for the constitution of Afghanistan. When he was convicted, the American government intervened on his behalf. After authorities released him, he went into exile in Italy.
Two Catholic priests, Father Robert Krzywicki and Father Josef Petushko, who had served over a decade in Belarus, were unable to get their religious visas extended beyond the end of 2005 and were expelled from the country. Father Kraqywicki said he had been critical of state ideology on the basis of Christ’s teaching. Father Petushko denied any wrongdoing.
On 28 January 2006, local officials in Minsk closed down a meeting at a cultural center when Baptist deacon Vladimir Golikov spoke on issues related to marriage. They also fired fifteen employees of the cultural center. Authorities accused Golikov of engaging in religious propaganda. An unwritten rule bans religious leaders from speaking in public forums outside the church on social issues.
Bishop Joseph Zen, the newly appointed cardinal from Hong Kong, called on the government of China to put aside “old prejudices” toward the Roman Catholic Church as a way to establish official relations between China and the Vatican. China cut ties with the Vatican in 1951. Pope Benedict XVI has made establishing relations with China an important goal. Pope John Paul II had long hoped to visit China, but the Chinese government prevented his going to Hong Kong in 1999 to meet with Asian bishops because relationships had still not been reestablished.
Authorities closed three house churches for not being registered. The action came under Directive 43 and Resolution 46, legislation that was adopted in April 2005.
Violence broke out in el-Udaysaat near Luxor when security forces intervened to counter an attack on buildings owned by the Coptic Orthodox Church. About a dozen people were killed, including one Christian.
The Holy Synod of the Eritrean Orthodox Church, which is controlled by the government, told Abune Antonios that he was no longer the patriarch of the church. Patriarch Antonios rejected the action and excommunicated those who did it. Patriarch Antonios was under house arrest in Asmarra.
On 30 January 2006, the foreign ministers of the European Union (EU) discussed the controversy over caricatures of Mohammed that appeared in a Danish newspaper. In reaction to strong Muslim protests, Austrian Foreign Minister Ursula Plassnik said, “We have expressed a spirit of solidarity with our northern colleagues, as well as our belief and attachment to the freedom of the press. . . .” Danish Foreign Minister Per Stig Moller said he was satisfied with the reaction of the foreign ministers.
In February, Franco Frattini, the EU commissioner for justice, freedom, and security, announced that there were plans for a code of conduct for how journalists should deal with sensitive religious issues. The code would be voluntary and would not “privilege” one religion above another.
Lawyers on a panel named by the European Commission (executive body of the EU) warned Slovakia against ratifying a draft concordat with the Vatican. It would, they said, put Slovakia in a position of “violating its obligations” to the EU. The treaty would allow healthcare workers in Catholic hospitals not to perform abortion or fertility treatment. The lawyers’ report said that religious belief could be the basis of not doing such things, but it also noted in a country such as Slovakia that this might lead to it becoming impossible or at least very difficult for women to obtain these services and that would violate women’s rights. Slovakia is staunchly Roman Catholic.
The publication of caricatures of Mohammed in the Danish press led to a significant clash between European liberal and Muslim values. The daily newspapers Jyllands-Posten first published the drawings in September 2005, and then the Norwegian weekly Magizinet republished them in January 2006. One drawing showed Mohammed with a turban shaped like a bomb. Muslims generally believe that there should be no visual depictions of Mohammed of any kind. The Danish government consistently refused to respond to demands for an apology made by Muslim leaders around the world.
In February 2006, there was a news report that the Jyllands-Posten in April 2003 refused to publish some caricatures of Jesus drawn by illustrator Christoffer Zieler. The editor, Jens Kasier, told Zieler that the readers would not enjoy the caricatures and that they would create a public outcry. Ahmend Akkair, a spokesman for an umbrella group of Danish Muslim organizations, denounced the contrary decisions as being based on “double-standards.”
Also in February, someone vandalized twenty-five Muslim graves in Esbjerg west of Copenhagen. Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen quickly issued a strong statement of condemnation and committed authorities to bringing the perpetrators to justice. Ahmend Akkair described the response as “maybe one of the positives signs” about relations between Muslims and other Danes.
The newspaper France Soir brought the controversy over the caricatures of Mohammed to France. Its front page ran a new cartoon featuring Buddhist, Jewish, Muslim, and Christian gods floating on a cloud with Jesus saying, “Don’t complain, Muhammed, we’ve all been caricatured here.” The original Danish caricatures appeared on inside pages. The government issued a statement saying that it supports freedom of press but calling for respect for religious beliefs. On 13 February, the French Regional Council for the Muslim Religion asked the European Court of Human Rights to review what had happened.
The serving of free meals to the poor that include pork by a group called Solidarity for the French (SDF) led to accusations of discrimination from Muslims and sympathetic politicians. SDF has ties to right-wing groups, but it claims that the work is merely humanitarian. The coalition of Socialists and Greens that rules Paris says the serving of pork is discriminatory and designed to promote xenophobia.
Comments by Ombudsman Sozar Subari questioning the special status of the Georgian Orthodox Church and calling for the translation of the Bible into minority dialects set off controversy about church and state in Georgia. The Holy Synod held a meeting that said the constitutional agreement between the government and the Orthodox Church provided a sound basis for their involvement in politics. The synod committed to the final development of the agreement with the government. The synod also said that the translation of the Bible for minorities threatened national unity.
Muslims objected to a series of questions asked in the state of Baden-Württemberg of at least some people seeking German citizenship. The government of Baden-Württemberg is led by the conservative Christian Democratic Party, which is allied to the small Free Democratic Party. The questions are asked only of people from member states of the Organization of the Islamic Conference. The questions deal with things such as what the applicant thinks of husbands’ being able to hit their wives and of a man having two wives. The Central Council of Muslims in Germany says the procedures are unconstitutional and plans to sue. Ute Vogt, leader of the opposition Social Democratic Party, said the questions are based on stereotypes and prejudice. So far the government has defended the procedures despite some concerns from their allies, the Free Democrats. The government says that not everyone is asked the questions and implied that their purpose was to identify extremists.
Ghana has experienced a wave of human rights abuses against women linked to accusations of witchcraft. What the women share is that they are too old to marry or to remarry in the case of widows. According to village culture, this means that they lack value.
In February, Hindu activists held a rally in Gujurat to encourage Christians to reconvert to Hinduism. About 60,000 attended, listened to popular television religious spokesman, and chanted praise to the god Rama.
Police in Central Jakarta summoned five people to appear on charges of insulting religion and displaying pornography. The charges stemmed from an exhibit at the Bank Indonesia Museum. It involved a photograph of actors posing as Adam and Eve with their genitalia covered by fig leaves. The conservative Islamic Defenders Front had led criticism of the exhibit.
With Iraq’s new constitution coming into effect, Islamic institutions now govern matters of marriage and inheritance. These issues were previously handled in civil courts.
Viterabo Judge Gaetano Mautone ordered Father Enrico Righi to testify in court to prove the existence of Jesus. The action was the result of a lawsuit brought by Luigi Cascioli, a militant atheist who is the author of a book entitled The Fable of Christ. The suit alleges “abuse of popular credulity” and “impersonation.” The judge had originally refused to hear the case, but an appeals court overruled him.
A court ordered that Baptist Pastor Pyotr Panafidin spend three days in jail and that his home be confiscated. This was punishment for his refusal to pay a fine for leading an unregistered church in his home.
Rioters attacked the Italian consulate in Benghazi after reports surfaced that Italian Reforms Minister Robert Calderoni had worn a T-shirt with one of the caricatures of Mohammed published by a Danish newspaper. Libyan security forces killed eleven people in the conflict. Calderoni resigned under pressure, and the Libyan parliament suspected the country’s interior ministry.
A new Islamic Family Law gives men more power in marriage and divorce. Under the law men no longer have to prove their ability to support four wives if they chose to have that many. The law also makes it easier for them to divorce their wives and allows them to freeze the bank accounts of former wives.
The editor of the Sunday Tribune resigned in the wake of protests of the newspaper’s decision to print one of the twelve controversial caricatures of Mohammed published in a Danish newspaper. The drawing appeared on page twelve of the newspaper as part of a story saying that the controversy had little effect in Malaysia. The newspaper also published a front-page apology in its Sunday edition.
A Socialist newspaper in Marrakech reported that police had found documents that appeared to prove the existence of an underground group of evangelical Christians who were seeking to convert Muslims. Police found the materials, it said, when they raided an apartment of an alleged foreign missionary who disappeared mysteriously.
Nigerian Muslims attacked Christians and burned churches in the wake of the news about the caricatures of Mohammed that appeared in a Danish newspaper. The protests, which followed years of violence between Muslims and Christians, took the lives of fifteen people.
A state-church panel recommended the disestablishment of the Lutheran Church. Eighteen of the twenty members favored disestablishment, but fourteen thought the Lutheran Church should retain a special status even if funding were withdrawn. The move would require a constitutional amendment and could not occur before 2014.
Muslim and Christian leaders came to an agreement to end a clash over accusations that a Punjabi man had burned some pages from the Quran. Mohammed Saleem dropped the charges, and in return Christian leaders agreed not to sue over the destruction of four churches by mobs outraged over the charges.
Armed masked men entered the office of the European Union in Gaza and fired their weapons in protest of caricatures of Mohammed which were published in a Danish newspaper. After reading a statement, they burned the Norwegian and Swedish flags. On the same day, members of the al-Aqsa brigades faxed a statement to the Swedish consulate in Jerusalem demanding that Danes and Swedish leave Palestinian land. Hamas, which had recently won Palestinian elections, called on Muslim countries to boycott Danish products.
Sheikh Mohammed Abu Teir, the second highest candidate on the Hamas election list, announced that Hamas plans to introduce Muslim law (Sharia) in Gaza. The announcement sparked worries among Christians and moderate Muslims.
After moving through the Senate without debate, a new draft law on religion went to the Standing Bureau of the Chamber of Deputies. If approved, the law would divide religious groups into three categories. Eighteen recognized religions would have the greatest rights. Other groups would be recognized as “religious associations” and have fewer rights. Groups with fewer than three hundred members would not be recognized at all. The Orthodox Church favors the law. Adventists, Baptists, Greek Catholics, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and the Bahai oppose it.
Russia cancelled the visa of John Corley and deported him. Mr. Corley had worked in Russia since 1990, engaging in a variety of activities with the Unification Church. Among other things, he helped found a group called the International Educational Foundation, which he then led. He describes its work as that of character formation.
Saudia Arabia recalled its ambassador to Denmark to discuss reaction to the publication of caricatures of Mohammed published in a Danish newspaper. Saudi religious leaders called for a boycott of Danish products.
Authorities began the destruction of the synagogue in Dushanbe, the only synagogue in the country. When one congregant attempted to tape the destruction, local officials stopped him, threatening to destroy his camera if he did not comply. Authorities claim the action is part of urban redevelopment. The members of the congregation are largely old and poor and cannot afford to pay for a new building.
Turkmenistan is limiting the number of people to whom it grants permission to go to Saudia Arabia for the pilgrimage. Only about 5 percent of the people that Saudi Arabia is willing to accept are able to go. The reasons are unclear, but the government Interior Ministry and the Minister of State Security investigate everyone before they go.
Patriarch Alexy II warned Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople not to interfere in the religious affairs of Ukraine. Ukrainian politicians have wanted Bartholomew to encourage an independent Orthodox Church of the Ukraine. Alexy said most Ukrainians want to keep ties to Moscow.
UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND
A court in London convicted Abu Hamza al-Masri of inciting racial hatred and of having a terror handbook. Charges of inciting murder stemmed from sermons he gave in a mosque in Finsbury Park in north London. Among those who prayed at the mosque were Richard Reid, known as the “shoebomber,” and Zacharias Moussaoui, who has been convicted and sentenced to life in prison in the United States for conspiracy in the September 11 bombings.
Hindus in the United Kingdom (UK) staged an e-mail campaign to protest a film French film (“Les Bronzes 3: Amis Pour La Vie”), which they say is offensive to them. The film shows its characters using bad language and ripping up images of the god Shiva. Warner Brothers, which distributed the film, says that it was intended only as summer farce.
Biotechnology: Republican Senator Rick Santorum of Pennsylvania has joined with senators who are supportive of stem-cell and other biotechnologies in calling for the federal government to fund research that would involve the creation of a modified human embryo. The bioengineered embryo could produce stem cells for medical use but would be incapable of implantation in a uterus; thus, utilization of these embryos would not involve the destruction of human life. Santorum has been one of the Senate’s most vocal opponents of stem-cell research in the past; however, in this legislation he joins his fellow senator from Pennsylvania, Arlen Specter, one of the strongest advocates of biotechnological research in attempting to carve a compromise position.
In another development, U.S. Senator Jim Talent has come out against a Missouri ballot initiative on stem-cell research that is supported by patient advocacy groups, universities, and research institutions. The move is thought to put Talent back in good graces with several socially conservative groups he was thought to have alienated through his inaction on this issue. Missouri has been a hotbed of political activity concerning stem-cell research recently, with petitions and rallies swirling around the ballot proposal.
Abortion: A victim advocate in the State of Connecticut is encouraging state legislators to reject a bill that would force Connecticut hospitals to make the “morning after” pill available to rape victims. The legislation extends to private, religiously affiliated hospitals and clinics. James F. Papillo, who is an ordained deacon in the Roman Catholic Church, has publicly challenged the need for the legislation, insisting that he knows of no victims who have complained of being denied the pill at Catholic or other church-affiliated hospitals. Papillo also stated that he opposes this bill as a victim advocate and not in his capacity as a Catholic deacon. Officials from other victim advocacy groups and rape crisis centers across the state have expressed dismay at Papillo’s statements, suggesting that his position does not conform to the best interests of the victims he defends. Also at issue are millions of dollars that Catholic and other religiously affiliated hospitals receive, in particular to fund services for uninsured patients, while denying them certain services that are seen to conflict with church teaching but which are available in state hospitals.
Education: The State Supreme Court in Maine has determined that legislation that excludes “sectarian” schools from the state’s voucher program is not in violation of the United States Constitution. The law banning religious schools from participation in the program has been in force since 1981, although it was challenged subsequently by parents desiring to obtain state funds to send their children to parochial schools. Although the plantiffs were denied in the original case, they re-filed after the United States Supreme Court’s decision in Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (2002), which found that an Ohio voucher program was constitutional. The Ohio program does include provisions to allow funding of students in parochial schools. However, the Maine Supreme Court cited a more recent U.S. high court ruling, Locke v. Davey (2004), which determined that states could exclude religious education from such programs providing they have a rational reason for doing so.
Homosexual rights: All five of the principal candidates in the Washington, D.C. mayoral race have announced their intentions to advocate tolerance for homosexuals in District of Columbia churches. These announcements come in response to statements by two of Washington’s most well-known ministers who recently condemned homosexuality in Sunday sermons. In a debate sponsored by the Gertrude Stein Democratic Club, the mayoral candidates were asked about statements made by Bishop Alfred A. Owens Jr., the pastor of Greater Mount Calvary Holy Church, and the Rev. Willie F. Wilson. Owens called gay men “faggots” and “sissies” and Wilson was particularly critical of what he sees as the threat posed by lesbianism to D.C.’s African-American community. All five candidates criticized the ministers’ positions, but only two voiced unqualified support for same-sex marriage.
Islam: Reports suggest that since the attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon on 11 September 2001, American Muslims of Arab and Asian ethnic descent increasingly are turning to black American Muslims for help and advice in battling discrimination and countering what they see as infringements on their civil rights. As an example, the NAACP is lending its civil rights experience to the Council on American Islamic Relations (CAIR) in an effort to help stem perceived violations of civil rights of American Muslims that have resulted from the implementation of the USA Patriot Act.
Traditionally, many black Muslims in the United States have felt slighted by Arab and Asian Muslims in seeking prominent positions in American Islam. However, the status of black converts in the American Islamic community appears to be on the rise. In 1991, an imam from Brooklyn who is on the board of directors of the Islamic Society of North America was the first Muslim to perform the invocation for the U.S. House of Representatives. African-American Muslims also sit on CAIR’s board of directors and one is a state chapter president. CAIR also dedicated a scholarship last year to the famous black American civil rights advocate Rosa Parks.
Denominational News: A Study by the Center for Applied Research in the Apostolate at Georgetown University suggests that American Catholics have been only marginally affected by the sex abuse scandal in the priesthood, at least as measured by their devotion to the Church. There has been little decline in church attendance or in local parish tithing; however, diocesan financial appeals have suffered somewhat.
Immigration: A recent Pew Research Center study concludes that many American Christians are concerned about the rapid growth in immigration to the United States, even while many religious leaders of Catholic, mainline Protestant, and Evangelical churches voice pro-immigration positions. The study also found that those Christians who attend church most frequently among these three major Christian groups are more likely to adhere to the pro-immigration stance of their church leadership than those who attend infrequently. Despite concerns over immigration, majorities among Catholics, mainline Protestants, and Evangelicals tend to view Hispanic immigrants as possessing an admirable work ethic and strong family values. However, white evangelicals were more likely than other American Christians in the survey to view immigration as a danger to American norms and values. Approximately 60 percent of white mainline Protestants and non-Hispanic Catholics believe that some form of temporary worker program should be initiated and that it should include the possibility of immigrants attaining citizen status in the future.
Military: The United States House of Representatives voted to allow military chaplains to pray in Jesus’ name during public, mandatory ceremonies in which soldiers of many faith traditions are present. This legislation overrules policy guidelines that have allowed only “generic” prayers in such military ceremonies. This measure was part of a bill with many unrelated items that passed overwhelmingly (396-31).
Uzbekistan increased fines for engaging in unregistered religious activities. Fines had been five to ten times the minimum wage, but now they are fifty to one hundred times the minimum wage.
L’Osservatore Romano, the Vatican’s official newspaper, published an article by biologist Firorenzo Facchini questioning the scientific validity of the theory of intelligent design. Facchini said the advocates of the theory blur the lines between faith and science. The article praised the court decision in Pennsylvania against the teaching of the theory in public schools.
The Bureau of Religious Affairs in Ho Chi Minh City gave three church organizations the legal right to function. They were a faction of the Vietnam Mennonite Church led by Reverend Nguyen Quang Trung, the small Grace Baptist Church, and one group within the Seventh-Day Adventist Church in Vietnam. The Mennonite group that was recognized is smaller than the group led by activist Pastor Nguyen Hong Quang.
Calendar of Events
Multicultural Britain: From Anti-Racism to Identity Politics to . . .?
14-15 June 2006
Roehampton University, Southlands College
London, United Kingdom
Organized by the Centre for Research on Nationalism, Ethnicity and Multiculturalism (CRONEM), the aim of this conference is to debate the history and seek new avenues by bringing together different generations from inside and outside universities so that we can learn from each other’s experiences and views.
The current debate about multiculturalism in the aftermath of the London transit bombing “7/7” needs to be set in its historical context. A key aspect of this history is the move from anti-racist debates and policies towards an emphasis on identity politics and “faith communities.” Some have encouraged this development and seek to defend it in a more general defense of multiculturalism. Others doubt its capacity to provide long term solutions, especially when “faith communities” are seen as the main vehicle of identity politics, focusing not only on Britain, but also on similar developments across Europe generally, and other parts of the globe.
Please see the website at http://www.surrey.ac.uk/Arts/CRONEM/ for more information. For registration inquiries, contact: Mirela Dumic at M.Dumic@surrey.ac.uk.
Social Justice in Practice
29 June-1 July 2006
This conference, sponsored by the Association for Legal and Social Philosophy, explores the complex relationship between the philosophical and practical analysis of social justice across the disciplines of philosophy, politics, law, and social policy. See the conference website at: http://www.ucd.ie/alsp2006 or contact firstname.lastname@example.org for more information.
Is Democracy Working?
9-13 July 2006
The Japanese Political Science Association will be hosting the 20th World Congress of the International Political Science Association (IPSA). Conference participants will address the theme, “Is Democracy Working?” For further information, see the website: www.fukuoka2006.com; or email email@example.com.
Jerome of Strido: Religion, Culture and Society in Late Antiquity
13-16 July 2006
Cardiff, Wales, UK
Cardiff University’s Centre for Late Antique Religion and Culture is hosting this conference, bringing together internationally renowned scholars worldwide to review and discuss the current state of research on Jerome and explore all new avenues. It will consider biographical and historical questions as well as questions relating to Jerome’s biblical scholarship, his literary output, and his reception. The conference will take place in the Cardiff University Main Building situated within the Cardiff University Cathays Park Campus.
For further information, or to obtain a registration form, contact Josef Lossl at: LosslJ@cf.ac.uk, Shaun Tougher at: TougherSF@cf.ac.uk, or Andrew Cain, University of Colorado at Boulder, USA at: Andrew.Cain@colorado.edu.
Past and Present Perspectives in Jewish Studies
23-27 July 2006
Moscow, Russian Federation
This conference is organized by the European Association for Jewish Studies and the International Center for Russian and East European Jewish Studies (Moscow). For information, please contact: Maria Liberman at EAJS2006@jewishstudies.ru or visit the website: http://jewishstudies.ru.
Theology and Religious Studies or Theology vs Religious Studies
6-7 July 2006
St. Anne’s College
Oxford University, United Kingdom
This two-day conference will explore the relationship between theology and religious studies and consider the challenges of, and strategies for, teaching both. For information, please contact: Dr. Darlene Bird at the Subject Centre for PRS. The website is: prs.heacademy.ac.uk.
International Conference on Justin Martyr and His World
20-22 July 2006
University of Edinburgh School of Divinity
Sponsored by the Centre for the Study of Christian Origins, this first international conference will focus on the important second-century Christian figure, Justin Martyr, and will bring together scholars across interdisciplinary lines, e.g. New Testament/Christian Origins, early Patristics, Roman history, and ancient philosophy, etc. For more information, email: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com.
Consciousness, Self-Consciousness and Cultural Identity
27-30 July 2006
Organized by the Society for Indian Philosophy and Religion, the program will include plenary addresses, volunteered papers, invited papers, and panel discussions. Registered participants who are members of professional associations are encouraged to submit proposals for meetings of their associations. For information, please contact: Dr. Chandana Chakrabarti at Chakraba@elon.edu.
International Conference on Islamic Jurisprudence and the Challenges of the 21st Century
8-10 August 2006
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Organized by the Department of Fiqh and Usul al-Fiqh and International Institute for Muslim Unity (IIMU), International Islamic University, Malaysia, this conference aims to explore the theoretical and practical dimensions of Maqasid al-Sharia’ah and its use for developing an integrated approach to the human and social sciences in particular and to the question of knowledge in general. For information, see the website at: http://maqasid.official.ws; or email: firstname.lastname@example.org; or contact the conference secretariat: Department of Fiqh Et Usul al Fiqh, Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O. Box 10, 50728 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
International Symposium on Islamic Civilization in Southern Africa
1-3 September 2006
Johannesburg, South Africa
This symposium aims to increase our knowledge of the history and heritage of Islam in Southern Africa; make the religious and cultural heritage of Southern African Muslims better understood by themselves and other communities inside and outside the region; strengthen affinities and cooperation among Muslim and African nations and peoples by producing and disseminating Islamic and cultural knowledge; and promote better understanding and dialogue among Muslim people and peoples of their faiths and cultural communities. For more information, visit the website at: http://www.awqafsa.org.za/2006_symposium.htm.
World’s Religions after September 11: A Global Congress
11-15 September 2006
The aim of this conference is to bring together the various religions of the world in an ecumenical spirit to address the many issues facing the world today, in the hope that this will help us to become better human beings. Please view the website: www.worldsreligionsafter911.com for further information and registration.