CASPER consists of five independent research groups covering both theoretical and experimental physics and two educational research and outreach groups.
- Hypervelocity Impacts and Dusty Plasmas Lab (HIDPL) and the Space Science Lab (SSL)
- The HIDPL/SSL experimental research facilities are built around a partnership agreement between Baylor University and the University of Stuttgart that exists through a signed Memorandum of Understanding. Both facilities also have collaborators across the world.
- Astrophysics and Space Science Theory Group (ASSTG)
- Early Universe Cosmology and Strings Group (EUCOS)
- Gravity, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics Group (GCAP)