Baylor University
Department of Physics
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Baylor > Physics > Faculty > Dr. Gerald B. Cleaver
Dr. Gerald B. Cleaver

Faculty - Gerald Cleaver
Professor & Graduate Program Director

BSB E319, (254) 710-2283


Positions & Education

Graduate Program Director


Baylor University




Baylor University


Associate Professor


Baylor University




Baylor University


Assistant Professor


Baylor University


Visiting Assistant Professor


Texas A&M University




Texas A&M University




University of Pennsylvania




The Ohio State University



String Theory & Early Universe Cosmology

California Institute of Technology




California Institute of Technology




Valparaiso University




Valparaiso University



Cleaver is Professor of Physics and Graduate Program Director in the Department of Physics at Baylor University. He is a member of the High Energy Physics group and head of the Early Universe Cosmology and String Theory (EUCOS) division of Baylor's Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics, and Engineering Research. Cleaver earned his Ph.D. at Caltech in 1993, where he studied under John H. Schwarz, one of the founders of string theory. Cleaver has written approximately 100 peer-reviewed journal papers and conference proceedings, which have received over 1300 total citations. He is author of four book chapters and an encyclopedia entry, and co-author of one text book.

Research Interests

Cleaver's primary research interests are string/M Theory, quantum gravity, and early universe cosmology. EUCOS conducts long-term systematic studies of the global properties of the string landscape in the free-fermionic heterotic region and more general issues of a string/M multiverse. (On the side, Cleaver frequently writes about philosophical implications of a multiverse.) Cleaver, Physics colleague Anzhong Wang, Baylor Math faculty Klaus Kirsten and Qin Sheng, and joint postdoc Tao Zhu investigate aspects of trans-Planckian physics of the very early universe. With EUCOS Adjunct Researcher Jeffrey Lee in Toronto, Cleaver investigates thermodynamical aspects of special relativity. With EUCOS Adjunct Researcher Eric Davis, Cleaver investigates scalar invariant properites of black holes and worm holes. With colleagues in Icarus Interstellar (founded by Cleaver's Ph.D. graduate Richard Obousy), Cleaver studies advanced propulsion systems for spacecraft (relating to his 2014 appointed to a blue ribbon review panel for NASA-Johson Space Center).

EUCOS Members

Faculty: Gerald Cleaver (Head), Ahmad Borzoy, Eric Davis, Jeffrey Lee (Adjunct Research Faculty)

Postdocs: Dr. Tao Zhu (GCAP/EUCOS), Dr. Tibra Ali (past, now at Perimeter Institute)

Graduate Students: Abinash Kar, Brandon Mattingly

Undergraduate Students: MD Ali, Andrew Baas, Caleb Elmor, Kameron Scott, Cooper Watson, Felix Yu (Associate Member)


Yanbin Deng, Ph.D. 2015, Dissertation: Reflections on General Relativity from Perspectives of Black Hole Physics and Horava-Lifshitz Gravity

Doug Moore, Ph.D. 2014, Dissertation: The Weakly Coupled Free Fermionic Heterotic String Gauge Landscape

Jared Greenwald, Ph.D. 2013, Dissertation: Automated Systematic Generation and Exploration of Flat Direction Phenomenology in Free Fermionic Heterotic String Theory

Tim Renner, Ph.D. 2011, Dissertation: Initial Systematic Investigations of the Weakly Coupled Free Fermionic Heterotic String Landscape Statistics

Kristin Pechan, M.S. 2010, Thesis: Investigation of Low Higgs Models in Weakly Coupled Free Fermionic Heterotic String Theory

Matt Robinson, Ph.D. 2009, Dissertation: Towards a Systematic Investigation of Weakly Coupled Free Fermionic Heterotic String Gauge Group Statistics

Richard Obousy, Ph.D. 2008, Dissertation: Investigations into Compactified Dimensions: Casimir Energies and Phenomenological Aspects

Ben Dundee, M.S. 2006, Dissertation: Grand Unified Theoreis in Higher Dimensions: From the Heterotic String to Randall-Sundrum

John Perkins, Ph.D. 2005, Thesis: Aspects of String Phenomenology at the Self-Dual Radius

EUCOS Undergraduate Students:

(current) Robert Gill, Kameron Scott, Andrew Scott; (past) Drake Gates, Scott Ruhnau

Courses Taught:

PHY 1420/1430 (General Physics I/II); PHY 3372/3373 (Intro Quantum Mechanics I/II); PHY 4373 (Intro Nuclear and Particle Physics); PHY 5370/5371 (Quantum Mechanics I;/II); PHY 5381 (Special Topics: String Cosmology); PHY 5V95 (Graduate Research in Superstrings); PHY 5V99 (Thesis in Superstrings); PHY 6373/6374/6375 (Quantum Field Theory I/II/III); PHY 6V99 (Dissertation in Superstrings); HON 3200 (Honors Colloquium); BIC 4389 (Senior Capstone)

Professional Activities:

Gerald Cleaver is a member of American Physical Society, Sigma Phi Sigma, the American Association of Physics Teachers, and the Mathematical Association of America. He is a Fellow of the American Scientific Affiliation. Cleaver is a physics textbook reviewer for McGraw-Hill and Thomas Learning, was a consultant and contributor to McGraw-Hill’s Grade Summit Project, a reviewer for Pearson Education Texas K-12 science textbooks, and a member of the Texas State Review Panel for Supplementary high school science material. He is a referee for Physical Review Letters, European Physical Journal, Modern Physics Letters A, General Relativity & Gravity, Acta Astronautica, Physics Essays, ISRN Mathematical Physics, and Scientific Journals International. Cleaver is a frequent judge at local, regional, and state Science and Engineering Fairs.


Gerald Cleaver is a member of several honor societies including Sigma Pi Sigma Physics H.S., Sigma Xi Science H.S., Sigma Rho Phi Science and Theology H.S., Mortar Board, and Alpha Lambda Delta. He was a recipient of a Mensa graduate fellowship and Presidential and Valparaiso University scholarships and was a National Merit Scholar. Cleaver received the Lumina Award for Academic Excellence at Valparaiso. He is a current or past member of Mensa, the Triple-9 Society, the International Society for Philosophical Enquiry, and the Prometheus Society.

Books and Book Chapters:

Multiverse: God's Indeterminacy In Action, in God's Providence and Randomness in Nature: Scientific and Theological Perspectives, R. Russell and J. Moritz, editors, ed.,  (West Conshohocken: Templeton Press, 2017).

Symmetry and the Standard Model, M. Robinson (First author), K. Bland, G. Cleaver, J. Dittmann, and M. Serna, (Springer, New York, 2011).

In Search of the (Minimal Supersymmetric) Standard Model String, Chapter 2 of String Theory Research Progress, F. Balogh, ed., (Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2008).

University or Multiversity? in The Baptist and Christian Tradition at Baylor, (Baylor University Press, Waco, 2003)

Hobbies and Interests:

Radio-Controlled Model Aviation, Tae Kwon Do (Blue Belt), Sailing, SCUBA (NAUI Open Water Certified), Snow Skiing, & Scouting (Eagle rank, Director of annual Baylor Boy Scout Merit Badge College)

Recent (2013-Present) Publications (*Indicates Appearing in or Under Review in Peer-Reviewed Publication):

Matter-Antimatter Propulsion via QFT Effects from Parallel Electric and Magnetic Fields, Proceedings of the Tennessee Valley Interstellar Workshop, Feb 2016, Chattanooga, Tennessee, by G. Cleaver.

*Universal features of quantum bounce in loop quantum gravity, arXiv:1607.06329 [gr-qc]. by T. Zhu, A. Wang, K. Kirsten, and Q. Sheng and Q. Wu. Under review at Phys. Rev. Lett.

*High-Order Primordial Perturbations with Quantum Gravitational Effects, Physical Review D93 (2016) 12, 123525; arXiv:1604.05739 [gr-qc], by T. Zhu, A. Wang, K. Kirsten, and Q. Sheng and Q. Wu.

*Exclusion of the Magnus Effect as a Mechanism for Shotgun Pellet Dispersion, by J. Lee and G. Cleaver. Under review at Forensic Science International.

*Hawking Radiation from Regular Black Holes as a Possible Probe for Black Hole Interior Structer, arXiv:1602.06035 [gr-qc], by Y. Deng and G. Cleaver. Under review at International Journal of Theoretical Physics.

*White Holes as the Asymptotic Limit of Evaporating Primordial Black Holes, arXiv:1602.05505 [physics.gen-ph], by J. Lee and G. Cleaver. Under review at International Journal of Modern Physics A.

*The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Power Spectrum as a Random Bit Generator for Symmetricd and Asymmetric-Key Cryptography, arXiv:1511.02511 [cs.CR], by J. Lee and G. Cleaver. Under review at Journal of Mathematical Cryptology.

*Inflationary spectra with inverse-volume corrections in loop quantum cosmology and their observational constraints from Planck 2015, Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 03 (2016) 046; arXiv:1510.03855 [gr-qc], by T. Zhu, A. Wang, G. Cleaver, K. Kirsten, and Q. Sheng. 

*Black Suns: Ocular Invisibility of Relativistic Luminous Astrophysical Bodies, Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology 2 (2016) 4; arXiv:1508.04817 [phys.gen-ph], by J. Lee and G. Cleaver.

*Scalar and tensor perturbations in loop quantum gravity: high-order corrections, Journal of Cosmology and Astrophysics 1510 (2015) 10, 052; arXiv:1508.03239 [gr-qc], by T. Zhu, A. Wang, G. Cleaver, K. Kirsten, and Q. Sheng.

*Ultra-Relativistic Density Inflation of Astrophysical Bodies in Apparent Black Holes, by J. Lee and G. Cleaver. Under review at Expert Opinion on Astronomy and Astrophysics.

*Relativistic Drag and Emission Pressure in an Isotropic Photonic Gas, Modern Physics Letters A31 (2016) 1650118arXiv:1508.00534 [gr-qc], by J. Lee and G. Cleaver.

*Detecting Quantum Gravitational Effects of Loop Quantum Cosmology in the Early Universe? Astrophysics Joureal 807 (2015) 1, L17; arXiv:1503.06761, by T. Zhu, A. Wang, G. Cleaver, K. Kirsten, and Q. Sheng.

*Ultra Relativistic Thermodynamics and Aberrations of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, Mod. Phys. Lett. A30 (2015) 09, 1550045, by J. Lee and G. Cleaver.

*Power Spectra and Spectral Indices of k-Inflation: Higher Order Corrections, Physical Review D90 (2014) 103517; arXiv:1407.8011 [gr-qc], by T. Zhu, A. Wang, G. Cleaver, K. Kirsten, and Q. Sheng.

*Effects of External Radiation on an Alcubierre Warp Bubble, Physics Essays 29 (2016) 201, by J. Lee and G. Cleaver.

The Inabiity of the White-Juday Warp Field Interferometer to Spectrally Resolve Spacetime Distortions, arXiv:1407.7772 [gr-qc], by J. Lee and G. Cleaver. Under review at Experimental Astronomy.

*Effects of Higher-Order Operators in Non-Relativistic Lifshitz Holography, Physical Review D91 (2015) 6, 064018; arXiv:1407.1194 [gr-qc], by X. Wang, J. Yang, M. Tian, A. Wang, Y. Deng, and G. Cleaver.

*Gravitational Quantum Effects on Power Spectra and Spectral Indices with Higher-Order Corrections, Physical Review D90 (2014) 063503; arXiv:1405.5301 [gr-qc], by T. Zhu, A. Wang, G. Cleaver, K. Kirsten, and Q. Sheng.

*Inflationary Cosmology with Nonlinear Dispersion Relations, Physical Review D89 (2014) 043507; arXiv:1308.5708 [gr-qc], by T, A. Wang, G. Cleaver, K. Kirsten, and Q. Sheng.

*Constructing Analytical Solutions of Linear Perturbations of Inflation with Modified Dispersion Relations, Int, J. of Mod. Phys. A29 (2014) 23, 1450142, arXiv:1308.1104 [gr-qc], by T. Zhu, A. Wang, G. Cleaver, K. Kirsten, and Q. Sheng.

*Gauge Models in D-Dimensions, Mod. Phys. Lett. A28 (20113) 1350055, arXiv:1302.5353 [hep-th], by D. Moore, J. Greenwald, and G. Cleaver.

*Initial Systematic Investigation of the Landscape of Low Layer NAHE-Variation Extensions, ISRN High Energy Physics (2013) 595070; arXiv:1111.1263 [hep-th], by J. Greenwald, D. Moore, T. Renner, and G. Cleaver.