The Army Medical Department recognized the need for a formalized physical therapy course of instruction during the early 1920s. Such a course began in the fall of 1922 at Walter Reed General Hospital. The course, only four months long at that time, went through numerous changes in length and content in the following two decades. The program received its first accreditation in 1928. The students were civilians, and worked as civilians in military hospitals after graduation.
In 1942, therapists were granted relative military rank and graduates could apply for commissions upon completion of the program. Enlisted women were also allowed to become students and then receive a commission. World War II increased the need for therapists, and from 1942 through 1946, the Army course (26 weeks in length) was run concurrently, on a quarterly basis, at not only Walter Reed, but at other locations which included Fort Sam Houston, TX; Hot Springs, AK; Brigham City, UT; and White Sulphur Springs, WV.
After the war, the need for therapists declined and the training of new therapists was suspended. The physical therapists already on active duty were included in the newly established Women's Medical Specialist Corps (WMSC) in 1947. The program was restarted in 1948 at which time the trainees were commissioned as second lieutenants during their schooling. The course work was moved to its current location at Fort Sam Houston, TX. Male therapists were accepted into the Corps in 1955 and the name of the Corps was changed to the Army Medical Specialist Corps (AMSC).
In 1971, Baylor University and the Army joined together to establish an entry-level Master's degree program. Curriculum changes reflect the evolving role of our profession in the military. Prior to the early 1970s, physical therapists worked in a prescriptive environment during peace time. Then, once again, a major change occurred. After the Vietnam conflict, the Army had too few orthopedic surgeons to manage huge troop populations with neuromusculoskeletal problems. Based on our performance record, and on the way we had met the expanded scope of practice required in Korea and Vietnam, physical therapists were identified as "physician extenders," credentialed to evaluate and treat neuromusculoskeletal patients without physician referral. Army physical therapists have been functioning in a direct access setting since that time. The U.S. Army-Baylor University Doctoral Program in Physical Therapy is tasked, therefore, to prepare the student for entry-level competence in all traditional physical therapy skills as well as to emphasize those skills needed as part of the neuromusculoskeletal evaluation process. Students are commissioned in the Army Medical Specialist Corps, Navy Medical Service Corps , the Air Force Biomedical Sciences Corps, or the Public Health Service usually at the rank of second lieutenant or ensign and receive the D.P.T. degree upon successful completion of the Baylor University curriculum.
The program was most recently accredited in 2007 for eight years by the Commission on Accreditation for Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE). In July 2002, the program was approved by Baylor University to transition to granting a Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) degree and CAPTE subsequently granted approval for the change. The first Doctor of Physical Therapy class began the program in December 2003 and graduated in April 2006. The program is scheduled for re-accreditation in Spring 2012.