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Theme 3


Appendix 3

Theme 3 -- Strengthening Community Engagement

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Appendix 3A

Considerations for the Council on Informed Engagement

  1. Lead initiatives in which we offer our distinctive knowledge, resources, and capabilities to address systemic problems in our community and throughout the world;

  2. Pursue academic partnerships with local, national, and global constituents that are focused on meeting human needs;

  3. Form stronger, more strategic community partnerships that improve the quality of life for Central Texans;

  4. Support local research that provides a foundation for effective solutions to community concerns;

  5. Integrate service into the fabric of campus life, grounded in a Christian understanding of hospitality that motivates humble service to all even as we remain faithful to our distinctive commitments;

  6. Build a robust and coordinated set of activities and programs that help all students navigate the path from matriculation to their initial and future vocations;

  7. Provide additional opportunities for students to explore and discern beliefs, convictions, and vocations;

  8. Provide greater opportunities for students to learn from the rich cultural diversity of the student body and surrounding community;

  9. Continue to graduate students who are prepared and committed to influence the world through intercultural understanding and ethical and compassionate service to others;

  10. Enhance curriculum and initiatives to help students develop as ethical leaders informed by biblical perspectives;

  11. Strengthen experiential learning programs that develop leadership and provide opportunities for practice and reflection (e.g., internships, research opportunities, service-learning courses, discipline-specific mission trips, and student organization involvement);

  12. Expand opportunities for our students to engage with community, state, national, and international leaders;

  13. Showcase Arts & Sciences Community Engagement and Service-Learning;

  14. Show what we are doing and why. Describe need for community leaders and partners;

  15. Have a one-page digital form for all Community Engagement and Service-Learning projects to turn in;

  16. Provide community service awards for research, education, and service for faculty, staff, and students;

  17. Encourage students to develop a Community Engagement and Service-Learning transcript and/or reflection journal; and

  18. Establish stronger relationships with the community for cultural events, such as Visual and Performing Arts (Hooper-Schaefer Fine Arts Center, Mayborn Museum Complex, and Martin Museum of Art) and Clinical Health Care (Piper Child Development Center, Communication Sciences and Disorders, and Psychology).

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Appendix 3B

Study Abroad and Related Experiences

  1. Summer programs, taught in foreign countries by Baylor professors: Argentina, Austria (Political Science faculty), China, Germany, Great Britain (three programs), France, Spain (two programs), Turkey, Italy (two programs), Maastricht, Thailand (minimester during Christmas holidays), Turkey, Kenya (when safe), Senegal (proposed), Family and Consumer Sciences trip to Paris and London, Theatre Arts trip to Prague (every fourth year), and Brazil (Biology faculty).

  2. Semester-long programs coordinated and/or taught by Baylor professors: Maastricht, Netherlands; St Andrews, Scotland.

  3. International Exchange programs (IEX): courses taught at foreign universities with which Baylor has agreements. The student pays Baylor tuition; the International Studies Office coordinates the determining of course equivalencies, administers registration, and submits the grades after the participating universities return the transcript. BU has exchange programs all over the world: Argentina; Hong Kong Baptist; Hosei & Seinan Gakuin in Japan; China (three universities); Scotland (two universities); Cantabria, Spain; Saint Louis University in Madrid; Korea; Caen, France; South Africa; and Mexico (currently suspended because of safety issues).

    On campus, Arts & Sciences offers a significant number of programs that have global components.

  4. Academic programs:

    • Majors and minors in foreign languages: SPA, FRE, GER, RUS, AME (Arabic & Middle East Studies), LAT, GKC, BRL (majors), ARB, CHI, ITA (additional minors);

    • Majors and minors in area studies: AFS, *AST, *LAS, MES, *SEES (*majors);

    • Majors with international focus: most significant is International Studies, housed in the Department of Political Science. The intensive version of the IST major requires that students study abroad, and we offer an MA in International Journalism. World Affairs minor: 18 hours of coursework with an international focus plus foreign language study. Although the Department of Economics is housed in the School of Business, it offers a BA in Economics through the College. Many Economics courses have an international focus; and

    • Courses throughout the curricula of different departments in the College have an international focus. Please see Appendix 3D for a listing of courses, programs, and foreign languages.

  5. Global Community Living Learning Center: During the 2012-13 academic year, 52 students were living in the GLLC, and many more would have joined the GLLC had space in Brooks Flats been available. Currently, the faculty director is a Spanish lecturer, and the one-hour course on intercultural communication (MFL 1101/3101) that students living in the GLLC must take is taught by another Spanish lecturer. There is a staff director who is shared with the Fine Arts LLC.

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Appendix 3C

Principles for Service Learning Courses

Howard, J., and McKeachie, W. (1993). Praxis I: A faculty casebook on community service learning. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Office of Community Service Learning (OCSL) Press.

Principle 1: Academic credit is for learning, not for service

Credit in academic courses is assigned to students for the demonstration of academic learning. It should be no different in community service learning courses. Academic credit is for academic learning, and community service is not academic in nature. Therefore, the credit must not be for the performance of the service. However, when community service is integrated into an academic course, the course credit is assigned for both the customary academic learning as well as for the utilization of the community learning in the service of the course learning. Similarly, the student’s grade is for the quality of learning and not for the quality (or quantity) of the service.

Principle 2: Do not compromise academic rigor

Academic standards in a course are based on the challenge that readings, presentations, and assignments present to students. These standards ought to be sustained when adding a community service learning component. Though experience-based learning is frequently perceived to be less rigorous than academic learning, especially in scholarly circles, we advise against compromising the level of instructor expectation for student learning. The additional workload imposed by a community service assignment may be compensated by an additional credit, but not by lowering academic learning expectations. Adding a service component, in fact, may enhance the rigor of a course because in addition to having to master the academic material, students must also learn how to learn from community experience and merge that learning with academic learning, and these are challenging intellectual activities that are commensurate with rigorous academic standards.

Principle 3: Set learning goals for students

Establishing learning goals for students is a standard to which all courses ought to be held accountable. Not only should it be no different with community service learning courses, but in fact it is especially necessary and advantageous to do so with these kinds of courses. With the addition of the community as a learning context, there occurs a multiplication of learning paradigms (e.g., inductive learning, synthesis of theory and practice) and learning topics (e.g., service of the course goals), and fully taking advantage of the rich bounty of learning opportunity offered by the community requires deliberate planning of the course learning goals.

Principle 4: Establish criteria for the selection of community service placements

To utilize community service optimally on behalf of course learning requires more than merely directing students to find a service placement. Faculty who are deliberate about establishing criteria for selecting community service placements will find that the learning that students extract from their respective service experiences will be of better use on behalf of course learning than if placement criteria are not established.

We offer three criteria as essential in all community service learning courses. First, the range of service placements ought to be circumscribed by the content of the courses; homeless shelters and soup kitchens are learning-appropriate placements for a course on homelessness, but placements in schools are not. Second, the duration of the service must be sufficient to enable the fulfillment of learning goals; a one-time two-hour shift at a hospital will do little for the learning in a course on institutional health care. And third, the specific service activities and service contexts must have the potential to stimulate course-relevant learning; filing records in a warehouse may be of service to a school district, but it would offer little to stimulate learning in a course on elementary school education.

We also offer three guidelines regarding the setting of placement criteria. First, responsibility for insuring that placement criteria are established that will enable the best student learning rests with the faculty. Second, the learning goals established for the course will be helpful in informing the placement criteria. And third, faculty who utilize the volunteer services office on campus or in the community to assist with identifying criteria-satisfying community agencies will reduce their start-up labor costs.

Principle 5: Provide educationally sound learning strategies to harvest community learning and realize course learning objectives

Learning in any course is realized by the proper mix and level of learning formats and assignments. To maximize students’ service experiences on behalf of course learning in a community service learning course requires more than sound service placements. Course assignments and learning formats must be carefully developed both to facilitate the students’ learning from their community service experiences and to enable use on behalf of course learning. Assigning students to serve at a community agency, even a faculty-approved one, without any mechanisms in place to harvest the learning therefrom, is insufficient to contribute to course learning. Experience as a learning format in and of itself does not consummate learning, nor does mere written description of one’s service activities.

Learning interventions that instigate critical reflection on and analysis of service experiences are necessary to enable community learning to be harvested and to serve as an academic learning enhancer. Therefore, discussions, presentations, and journal and paper assignments that provoke analysis of service experiences in the context of the course learning and that encourage the blending of experiential and academic learning are necessary to help ensure that the service does not underachieve in its role as an instrument of learning. Here too, the learning goals set for the course will be helpful in informing the course learning formats and assignments.

Principle 6: Provide supports for students to learn how to harvest the community learning

Harvesting the learning from the community and utilizing it on behalf of course learning are learning paradigms for which most students are underprepared. Faculty can help students realize the potential of community learning by either assisting students with the acquisition of skills necessary for gleaning the learning from the community, or by providing examples of how to do so successfully. An example of the former would be to provide instruction on participant-observation skills; an example of the latter would be to make accessible a file containing past outstanding student papers and journals to current students in the course.

Principle 7: Minimize the distinction between the students’ community learning role and the classroom learning role

Classrooms and communities are very different learning contexts, each requiring the student to assume a different learning role. Generally, classrooms provide a high level of learning direction, with students expected to assume largely a learning-follower role. In contrast, communities provide a low level of learning direction, with students expected to assume largely a learning-leader role. Though there is compatibility between the level of learning direction and the expected student role within each learning context, there is incompatibility across them.

Alternating between the learning-follower role in the classroom and the learning-leader role in the community not only places yet another learning challenge on students but also is inconsistent with good pedagogical principles. Just as we do not mix required lectures (high learning-follower role) with a student-determined reading list (high learning-leader role) in a traditional course, so too we must not impose conflicting learner role expectations on students in community service learning courses.

Therefore, if students are expected to assume a learning-follower role in the classroom, then a mechanism is needed that will provide learning direction for the students in the community (e.g., community agency staff serving in an adjunct instructor role); otherwise, students will enter the community wearing the inappropriate learning-follower hat. Correspondingly, if the students are expected to assume a learning-leader role in the community, then room must be made in the classroom for students to assume a learning-leader role; otherwise, students will enter the classroom wearing the inappropriate learning-leader hat. The more we can make consistent each student’s learning role in the classroom with her or his learning role in the community, the better the chances that the learning potential within each context will be realized.

Principle 8: Rethink the faculty instructional role

Regardless of whether they assume learning-leader or learning-follower roles in the community, community service learning students are acquiring course-relevant information and knowledge from their service experiences. At the same time, as we previously acknowledged, students also are being challenged by the many new and unfamiliar ways of learning inherent in community service learning. Because students carry this new information and these learning challenges back to the classroom, it behooves service learning faculty to reconsider their interpretation of the classroom instructional role. A shift in instructor role that would be most compatible with these new learning phenomena would be a move away from information dissemination and a move toward learning facilitation and guidance. Exclusive or even primary use of the traditional instructional model interferes with the promise of learning fulfillment available in community service learning courses.

Principle 9: Be prepared for uncertainty and variation in student learning outcomes

In college courses, the learning stimuli and class assignments largely determine student outcomes. This is true in community service learning courses too. However, in traditional courses, the learning stimuli (i.e., lectures and readings) are constant for all enrolled students; this leads to predictability and homogeneity in student learning outcomes. In community service learning courses, the variability in community service placements necessarily leads to less certainty and homogeneity in student learning outcomes. Even when community service learning students are exposed to the same presentations and the same readings, instructors can expect that the content of class discussions will be less predictable and the content of student papers will be less homogenous than in courses without a community assignment.

Principle 10: Maximize the community responsibility orientation of the course

If one of the objectives of a community service learning course is to cultivate students’ sense of community and social responsibility, then designing course learning formats and assignments that encourage a communal rather than an individual learning orientation will contribute to this objective. If learning in a course is privatized and tacitly understood as for the advancement of the individual, then we are implicitly encouraging a private responsibility mindset; an example would be to assign papers that students write individually and that are read only by the instructor. On the other hand, if learning is shared among the learners for the benefit of corporate learning, then we are implicitly encouraging a group responsibility mentality; an example would be for students to share those same papers with other students in the class. This conveys to the students that they are resources for one another, and this message contributes to the building of commitment to community and civic duty.

Howard notes that by subscribing to this set of 10 pedagogical principles, faculty will find that students’ learning from their service will be optimally utilized on behalf of academic learning, corporate learning, developing a commitment to civic responsibility, and providing learning-informed service in the community.

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Appendix 3D

Global Coursework on the Baylor Campus

Anthropology:

ANT 1310, Cultural Geography; ANT 2305, Anthropology in the Global Context; ANT 3318, African Civilization; ANT 3340, Societies and Cultures of Mexico and Central America; ANT 3352, Latin American Interface; ANT 4310, Societies and Cultures of East Asia; ANT 4312, Societies and Cultures of Africa

Archaeology:

ARC 3303, Archaeology and the Bible; ARC 3351, Ancient Civilizations of Mesoamerica

Classics:

CLA 3301, Roman Civilization; CLA 3302, Greek Civilization

Geography:

GEOG 1300, World Geography

History:

HIS 3305, Traditional China; HIS 3307, Japan; HIS 3310, The Middle East; HIS 3311, Middle East History 600-1798; HIS 3315, History of West Africa; HIS 3353, Pre-Colombian and Colonial Latin America; HIS 3355, Modern Latin America; HIS 4305, Modern China; HIS 4312, Modern Middle East History; HIS 4313, War and Peace in the Middle East; HIS 4350, The History of Gender in Latin America

Political Science:

International Relations and Comparative Politics courses: PSC 3315, Fundamentals of International Politics; PSC 3325, Ethnopolitical Conflicts; PSC 3304, Comparative Politics; PSC 3314, Politics and Problems of Developing Countries; PSC 3324, World Political Systems; PSC 4304, Governments and Politics of Latin America; PSC 4314, Government and Politics of Mexico; PSC 4334, Governments and Politics of the Middle East; PSC 4364, The Governments and Politics of the Asia-Pacific Region; PSC 4374, Governments and Politics of East Asia

Religion:

REL 3345, World Religions

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Appendix 3E

Council for Informed Engagement: Possible Activities Related to Global Education

Examples of activities for the Council for Informed Engagement to consider are:

  1. Expand the percentage of Arts & Sciences students who gain global experiences during their time at Baylor, including exchange and study abroad offerings, international internships, and mission projects. Because Baylor teaches many different modern languages (11 currently), we need to ensure that students of those languages have study abroad opportunities.

  2. Increase scholarships for study abroad and other global opportunities, including missions. Many Baylor students cannot afford to attend summer or semester study abroad programs because of the high cost of tuition combined with rising prices of airfare, housing, and in-country transportation.

  3. Create and sustain degree programs that enhance students’ understanding of the global community; for example, the recently approved major in Arabic and Middle East Studies and minor in International Studies. The new secondary majors in Spanish, French, German, and Russian should enable more students to combine a foreign language major with a major outside of Arts & Sciences.

  4. Create and sustain extra-curricular programs that enhance students’ understanding of the global community. A primary example is the Global Community Living Learning Center, which should be expanded, but which has not been able to secure a full-time staff position for the key leadership role.

  5. Encourage more exchanges that would bring increasing numbers of international faculty and students to the Baylor campus.